curl(1)



curl(1)                           Curl Manual                          curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,  IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3,  POP3S,  RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS,
       SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work  without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file  trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,  and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related  features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL  syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as in:

         http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

         ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt

         ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

         ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

         http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.  They  will  be
       fetched  in a sequential manner in the specified order. You can specify
       command line options and URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can  specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
       or letter:

         http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt

         http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes  for  other  characters
       treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide  the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

         http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For  exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on
       files  specified  on  a  single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of  transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of bytes and  the  speeds
       are  in  bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024 based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you  invoke
       curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect  (>),  -o,
       --output or similar.

       It  is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit
       out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress  "bar"  instead  of  the  regular  meter,  -#,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value next to them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form  of the options, -d for example, may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended separator. The long "double-dash" form, -d, --data for
       example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used
       immediately  next  to  each other, like for example you can specify all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled  with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were  toggled  on/off  on  re-
       peated use of the same command line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix domain socket, instead
              of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path  of  an  ab-
              stract  socket  prefixed  with  '@', however the <path> argument
              should not have this leading character.

              Added in 7.53.0.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
              and  use  the most secure one the remote site claims to support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
              headers,  thus  possibly  inducing  an extra network round-trip.
              This is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific  authentication
              method,  which  you  can  do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
              --negotiate.

              Using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin,
              since  it  may require data to be sent twice and then the client
              must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when  uploading
              from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

              Used together with -u, --user.

              See also --proxy-anyauth and --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
              (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append to the
              target file instead  of  overwriting  it.  If  the  remote  file
              doesn't  exist,  it will be created.  Note that this flag is ig-
              nored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication with the  re-
              mote host. This is the default and this option is usually point-
              less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
              sets  a  different  authentication method (such as --ntlm, --di-
              gest, or --negotiate).

              Used together with -u, --user.

              See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert <file>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
              the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
              use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
              if  it  is  set,  and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for  a  CA
              certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-
              tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
              folder along your PATH.

              If  curl  is  built  against  the  NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
              PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be available for this op-
              tion to work properly.

              (iOS  and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then this option is supported for  backward  compatibility  with
              other  SSL  engines,  but it should not be set. If the option is
              not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
              user  Keychain to verify the peer, which is the preferred method
              of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

              (Schannel only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
              7  or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported
              for backward compatibility with other SSL engines; instead it is
              recommended  to use Windows' store of root certificates (the de-
              fault for Schannel).

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <dir>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate  directory  to
              verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be provided by separating
              them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
              be  in PEM format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the di-
              rectory must have been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
              plied  with  OpenSSL.  Using  --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
              curl to make SSL-connections much more  efficiently  than  using
              --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
              and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-status
              (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
              by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
              extension.

              If this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid  (e.g.
              expired) response, if the response suggests that the server cer-
              tificate has been revoked, or no response at  all  is  received,
              the verification fails.

              This  is  currently  only implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
              NSS backends.

              Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
              (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided  client  certificate  is
              using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.  If not spec-
              ified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -E, --cert and --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
              when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto-
              col. The certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if  using  Secure
              Transport,  or PEM format if using any other engine.  If the op-
              tional password isn't specified, it will be queried for  on  the
              terminal.  Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
              that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
              See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
              can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within  the
              NSS  database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
              default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM  PKCS#11  module  (lib-
              nsspem.so)  is  available  then  PEM files may be loaded. If you
              want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
              with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
              If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\"  so
              that  it  is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
              name contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it  is
              not recognized as an escape character.

              If  curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
              ify  a  certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string begin-
              ning with "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.  If  a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option will be set as
              "pkcs11" if none was provided and the --cert-type option will be
              set as "ENG" if none was provided.

              (iOS  and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
              then the certificate string can either be the name of a certifi-
              cate/private  key in the system or user keychain, or the path to
              a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private key. If  you  want  to
              use  a  file  from the current directory, please precede it with
              "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              (Schannel only) Client certificates must be specified by a  path
              expression  to  a  certificate  store.  (Loading PFX is not sup-
              ported; you can import it to a store first). You can use "<store
              location>\<store  name>\<thumbprint>"  to refer to a certificate
              in  the  system  certificates  store,  for   example,   "Curren-
              tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
              is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see  in  certificate
              details.  Following  store locations are supported: CurrentUser,
              LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,  CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
              LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also --cert-type and --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
              of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL  cipher
              list details on this URL:

               https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --compressed-ssh
              (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
              not an order; the server may or may not do it.

              Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
              curl  supports, and save the uncompressed document.  If this op-
              tion is used and the server sends an unsupported encoding,  curl
              will report an error.

       -K, --config <file>

              Specify  a  text  file  to read curl arguments from. The command
              line arguments found in the text file will be used  as  if  they
              were provided on the command line.

              Options  and their parameters must be specified on the same line
              in the file, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
              Long  option  names  can  optionally be given in the config file
              without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals
              characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified
              with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals  charac-
              ter between the option and its parameter.

              If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
              enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the following  es-
              cape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A back-
              slash preceding any other letter is ignored. If the first column
              of  a  config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will
              be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line
              in the config file.

              Specify  the  filename  to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read
              the file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the  config  file,  you
              need  to  specify  it  using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
              this:

              url = "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              When  curl  is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used) checks
              for a default config file and uses it if found. The default con-
              fig file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1)  curl  tries  to find the "home dir": It first checks for the
              CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it  uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the home
              dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it  then
              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
              PROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home  dir,  it
              checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
              Unix-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc  from  the
              determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "example.com"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This  option  can be used multiple times to load multiple config
              files.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that  you  allow  curl's  connection  to
              take.   This  only  limits the connection phase, so if curl con-
              nects within the given period it will continue - if not it  will
              exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

              For  a  request  to  the  given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
              HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option is suitable to direct requests
              at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
              ter of servers. This option is only used to establish  the  net-
              work  connection.  It  does NOT affect the hostname/port that is
              used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
              application  protocols.  "HOST1"  and  "PORT1"  may be the empty
              string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
              the   empty   string,   meaning   "use  the  request's  original
              host/port".

              A "host" specified to this option is compared as a string, so it
              needs  to  match  the name used in request URL. It can be either
              numerical such as "127.0.0.1" or the full host name such as "ex-
              ample.org".

              This option can be used many times to add many connect rules.

              See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file transfer at the given offset.
              The given offset is the exact  number  of  bytes  that  will  be
              skipped,  counting  from the beginning of the source file before
              it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use  "-C  -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
              resume the transfer. It then uses the given  output/input  files
              to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar <filename>
              (HTTP)  Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
              after a completed operation. Curl writes all  cookies  from  its
              in-memory  cookie storage to the given file at the end of opera-
              tions. If no cookies are known, no data  will  be  written.  The
              file  will  be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If
              you set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be
              written to stdout.

              This  command  line  option will activate the cookie engine that
              makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
              to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
              operation won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using  -v,
              --verbose  will  get  a  warning displayed, but that is the only
              visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the  last  specified  file
              name will be used.

       -b, --cookie <data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
              is supposedly the data previously received from the server in  a
              "Set-Cookie:"   line.    The   data  should  be  in  the  format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' symbol is used in the argument, it is instead  treated
              as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This option
              also activates the cookie engine which will make curl record in-
              coming  cookies, which may be handy if you're using this in com-
              bination with the -L,  --location  option  or  do  multiple  URL
              transfers  on the same invoke. If the file name is exactly a mi-
              nus ("-"), curl will instead the contents from stdin.

              The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
              HTTP  headers  (Set-Cookie style) or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie
              file format.

              The file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as  input.  No
              cookies  will  be written to the file. To store cookies, use the
              -c, --cookie-jar option.

              Exercise caution if you  are  using  this  option  and  multiple
              transfers may occur.  If you use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in
              a file use the Set-Cookie format and  don't  specify  a  domain,
              then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects are
              followed) and cannot be modified by a server-set cookie. If  the
              cookie  engine is enabled and a server sets a cookie of the same
              name then both will be sent on a future transfer to that server,
              likely not what you intended.  To address these issues set a do-
              main in Set-Cookie (doing that will include sub domains) or  use
              the Netscape format.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Users very often want to both read cookies from a file and write
              updated cookies back to a file, so using both -b,  --cookie  and
              -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o, --output option, curl will
              create the necessary local directory hierarchy as  needed.  This
              option  creates the dirs mentioned with the -o, --output option,
              nothing else. If the --output file name uses no dir  or  if  the
              dirs it mentions already exist, no dir will be created.

              To  create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-
              create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF  in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
              (OS/390).

              (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile <file>
              (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
              tion List that may specify peer certificates that are to be con-
              sidered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.19.7.

       --data-ascii <data>
              (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP)  This  posts data exactly as specified with no extra pro-
              cessing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest  should  be  a
              filename.   Data  is  posted  in  a similar manner as -d, --data
              does, except that newlines and carriage  returns  are  preserved
              and conversions are never done.

              Like  -d,  --data the default content-type sent to the server is
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded. If you want the  data  to  be
              treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
              tent-type to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type:  application/octet-
              stream".

              If  this  option  is  used several times, the ones following the
              first will append data as described in -d, --data.

       --data-raw <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data similarly to -d, --data but  without  the
              special interpretation of the @ character.

              See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP)  This posts data, similar to the other -d, --data options
              with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin  with  a  name
              followed  by a separator and a content specification. The <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
                     on.  Just  be careful so that the content doesn't contain
                     any = or @ symbols, as that will  then  make  the  syntax
                     match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
                     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and  pass
                     that  on.  Note that the name part is expected to be URL-
                     encoded already.

              @filename
                     This will make curl load data from the  given  file  (in-
                     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
                     on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will make curl load data from the  given  file  (in-
                     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
                     on in the POST. The name part  gets  an  equal  sign  ap-
                     pended,  resulting  in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
                     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       See also -d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request  to  the  HTTP
              server,  in  the  same  way  that a browser does when a user has
              filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This  will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              --data-raw is almost the same but does not have a special inter-
              pretation  of  the  @ character. To post data purely binary, you
              should instead use the --data-binary option.  To URL-encode  the
              value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com-
              mand line, the data pieces specified  will  be  merged  together
              with  a  separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d name=daniel -d
              skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
              file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl  to  read
              the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-
              ing data from a file named from a file like that,  carriage  re-
              turns and newlines will be stripped out. If you don't want the @
              character to have a special interpretation  use  --data-raw  in-
              stead.

              See also --data-binary and --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
              option overrides -F, --form and -I,  --head  and  -T,  --upload-
              file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
              (GSS/kerberos)  Set  LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed
              to delegate when it comes to user credentials.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag  is  set
                     in  the  Kerberos  service  ticket,  which is a matter of
                     realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an  authenti-
              cation  scheme  that  prevents the password from being sent over
              the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the  normal
              -u, --user option to set user name and password.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used.

              See also -u, --user and --proxy-digest and --anyauth.  This  op-
              tion overrides --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
              when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
              attempt  to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
              option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and  LPRT  are  exten-
              sions  to  the  original  FTP  protocol, and may not work on all
              servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than
              the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
              is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              If the server is accessed using IPv6, this option will  have  no
              effect as EPRT is necessary then.

              Disabling  EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to
              switch to passive mode you need to not  use  -P,  --ftp-port  or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP)  (FTP)  Tell  curl  to disable the use of the EPSV command
              when doing passive FTP  transfers.  Curl  will  normally  always
              first  attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it
              will not try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
              is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              If  the  server is an IPv6 host, this option will have no effect
              as EPSV is necessary then.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
              switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
              If  used  as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc
              config file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config  for
              details on the default config file search path.

       --disallow-username-in-url
              (HTTP)  This  tells  curl  to  exit if passed a url containing a
              username.

              See also --proto. Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
              (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS  requests  through  <inter-
              face>.  This  option is a counterpart to --interface (which does
              not affect DNS). The supplied string must be an  interface  name
              (not an address).

              See  also  --dns-ipv4-addr  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
              (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
              quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from  this  address.
              The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

              See  also  --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
              (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
              quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from  this  address.
              The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

              See  also  --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
              requires that the underlying libcurl was  built  to  support  c-
              ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
              Set the list of DNS servers to be used instead of the system de-
              fault.  The list of IP addresses should be separated  with  com-
              mas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-number>
              after each IP address.

              --dns-servers requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to
              support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
              (all)  Specifies which DNS-over-HTTPS (DOH) server to use to re-
              solve hostnames, instead of  using  the  default  name  resolver
              mechanism. The URL must be HTTPS.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
              (HTTP  FTP) Write the received protocol headers to the specified
              file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store  the  headers
              that  an  HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could
              then be read in a  second  curl  invocation  by  using  the  -b,
              --cookie  option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a better way to
              store cookies.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines  are  considered
              being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
              (TLS)  Specify  the  path  name  to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
              socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
              connections.

              See also --random-file.

       --engine <name>
              (TLS)  Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher opera-
              tions. Use --engine list to print a list of build-time supported
              engines.  Note  that  not  all  (or  none) of the engines may be
              available at run-time.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
              (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
              100-continue  response  when curl emits an Expects: 100-continue
              header in its request. By default curl  will  wait  one  second.
              This  option accepts decimal values! When curl stops waiting, it
              will continue as if the response has been received.

              See also --connect-timeout. Added in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
              Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

              When curl is used to do multiple transfers on the command  line,
              it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one by one. By de-
              fault, it will ignore errors if there are more  URLs  given  and
              the  last  URL's  success will determine the error code curl re-
              turns. So early failures will be "hidden" by subsequent success-
              ful transfers.

              Using  this  option,  curl  will  instead return an error on the
              first transfer that fails, independent of  the  amount  of  URLs
              that  are given on the command line. This way, no transfer fail-
              ures go undetected by scripts and similar.

              This option is global and does not need to be specified for each
              use of -:, --next.

              This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
              fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
              two options, however note -f, --fail is not global and is there-
              fore contained by -:, --next.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server  errors.  This
              is  mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
              failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
              deliver  a  document,  it  returns  an  HTML document stating so
              (which often also describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
              vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This  method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
              successful response codes will slip through, especially when au-
              thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       --false-start
              (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the TLS handshake.
              False start is a mode where a TLS client will start sending  ap-
              plication  data  before verifying the server's Finished message,
              thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

              This is currently only implemented in the NSS and Secure  Trans-
              port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backends.

              Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP)  Similar  to -F, --form except that the value
              string for the named parameter is used  literally.  Leading  '@'
              and '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no
              special meaning. Use this in preference to -F, --form if there's
              any  possibility  that the string value may accidentally trigger
              the '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

              See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For HTTP protocol family, this lets  curl  emu-
              late  a  filled-in  form  in which a user has pressed the submit
              button. This causes curl to POST  data  using  the  Content-Type
              multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

              For  SMTP and IMAP protocols, this is the mean to compose a mul-
              tipart mail message to transmit.

              This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force  the  'con-
              tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
              just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with
              the  symbol  <.  The  difference  between @ and < is then that @
              makes a file get attached in the post as a  file  upload,  while
              the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
              field from a file.

              Tell curl to read content from stdin instead of a file by  using
              - as filename. This goes for both @ and < constructs. When stdin
              is used, the contents is buffered in memory first by curl to de-
              termine its size and allow a possible resend.  Defining a part's
              data from a named non-regular file (such as a named pipe or sim-
              ilar)  is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will be ef-
              fectively read at transmission time; since the full size is  un-
              known before the transfer starts, such data is sent as chunks by
              HTTP and rejected by IMAP.

              Example: send an image to an HTTP server, where 'profile' is the
              name  of  the  form-field to which the file portrait.jpg will be
              the input:

               curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

              Example: send a your name and shoe size in two  text  fields  to
              the server:

               curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11 https://example.com/

              Example:  send  a your essay in a text field to the server. Send
              it as a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a lo-
              cal file:

               curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

              You  can  also  tell  curl  what  Content-Type  to  use by using
              'type=', in a manner similar to:

               curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" example.com

              or

               curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file  upload
              part by setting filename=, like this:

               curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

              If  filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by dou-
              ble-quotes like:

               curl  -F  "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\""   exam-
              ple.com

              or

               curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' example.com

              Note  that  if  a  filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
              double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
              backslash.

              Quoting  must  also  be  applied to non-file data if it contains
              semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

               curl -F  'colors="red;  green;  blue";type=text/x-myapp'  exam-
              ple.com

              You  can  add  custom  headers to the field by setting headers=,
              like

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

              or

                curl -F "submit=OK;headers=@headerfile" example.com

              The headers= keyword may appear more that once and  above  notes
              about  quoting  apply.  When headers are read from a file, Empty
              lines and lines starting with '#' are comments and ignored; each
              header can be folded by splitting between two words and starting
              the continuation line with a  space;  embedded  carriage-returns
              and  trailing  spaces  are  stripped.   Here  is an example of a
              header file contents:

                # This file contain two headers.
                X-header-1: this is a header

                # The following header is folded.
                X-header-2: this is
                 another header

              To support sending multipart mail messages, the  syntax  is  ex-
              tended as follows:
              -  name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character of
              the argument,
              - if data starts with '(', this signals to start  a  new  multi-
              part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
              - a multipart can be terminated with a '=)' argument.

              Example:  the  following  command sends an SMTP mime e-mail con-
              sisting in an inline part in two alternative formats: plain text
              and HTML. It attaches a text file:

               curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
                       -F '=plain text message' \
                       -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
                    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt' ...  smtp://example.com

              Data  can  be encoded for transfer using encoder=. Available en-
              codings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
              corresponding  Content-Transfer-Encoding  header, 7bit that only
              rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
              and  base64  that  encodes  data  according to the corresponding
              schemes, limiting lines length to 76 characters.

              Example: send multipart mail with a quoted-printable  text  mes-
              sage and a base64 attached file:

               curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable' \
                    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ... smtp://example.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

              This  option  overrides  -d, --data and -I, --head and -T, --up-
              load-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
              and  password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
              ACCT command.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS  commands  fails,
              send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure
              Transport server over FTPS using  a  client  certificate,  using
              "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
              the certificate.

              Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses  a  path  that
              doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
              create missing directories.

              See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
              (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
              FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the  follow-
              ing alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl  does  a  single CWD operation for each path part in
                     the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very  many
                     commands.  This  is  how RFC 1738 says it should be done.
                     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
                     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
                     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
                     operates  on  the  file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
                     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Added in 7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
              internal default behavior, but using this option can be used  to
              override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used. Undoing an enforced passive really isn't  doable  but  you
              must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
              then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

              See also --disable-epsv. Added in 7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
              necting  with  FTP. This option makes curl use active mode. curl
              then tells the server to connect back to the client's  specified
              address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an
              IP address and port for it to connect to.  <address>  should  be
              one of:

              interface
                     e.g.  "eth0"  to specify which interface's IP address you
                     want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is  already  used
                     for the control connection

       If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used. Dis-
       able the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       Since 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of  the  ad-
       dress,  to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you specify
       a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as
       well,  but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the port
       may not be available.

       See also --ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV  (and  EPSV).
              Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
              command for directory listings as well as up  and  downloads  in
              PASV mode.

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
              its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
              connection.  Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it al-
              ready uses for the control connection.

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
              of PASV.

              See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
              (FTP)  Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will not initiate the
              shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not
              reply to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates
              the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

              See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS
              layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
              munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-
              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive.

              See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the FTP login, clear for transfer.
              Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted  data  transfers
              for  efficiency.   Fails the transfer if the server doesn't sup-
              port SSL/TLS.

              Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
              When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
              --data,  --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
              GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
              used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If  used  in combination with -I, --head, the POST data will in-
              stead be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.  This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but you
              should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
              this  option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note  that
              these  letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
              Happy eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to  both
              IPv4  and  IPv6  addresses for dual-stack hosts, preferring IPv6
              first for the number of milliseconds. If the IPv6 address cannot
              be  connected  to  within that time then a connection attempt is
              made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The first connection to be
              established is the one that is used.

              The  range of suggested useful values is limited. Happy Eyeballs
              RFC 6555 says "It is RECOMMENDED  that  connection  attempts  be
              paced  150-250 ms apart to balance human factors against network
              load." libcurl currently defaults to 200 ms. Firefox and  Chrome
              currently default to 300 ms.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
              (HTTP)  Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the beginning
              of the connection. This is used by some load balancers  and  re-
              verse proxies to indicate the client's true IP address and port.

              This  option is primarily useful when sending test requests to a
              service that expects this header.

              Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
              (HTTP FTP FILE) Fetch the headers only! HTTP-servers feature the
              command  HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
              document. When used on an FTP or FILE file,  curl  displays  the
              file size and last modification time only.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
              (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
              to a server. You may specify any number of extra  headers.  Note
              that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
              one of the internal ones curl would  use,  your  externally  set
              header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
              to make even trickier stuff than curl  would  normally  do.  You
              should  not  replace internally set headers without knowing per-
              fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giv-
              ing  a  replacement  without  content  on  the right side of the
              colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-
              value  then its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such
              as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header  you  add/replace  is  sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              Starting  in  7.55.0, this option can take an argument in @file-
              name style, which then adds a header for each line in the  input
              file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head-
              ers intended for a proxy.

              Example:

               curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://example.com/

              WARNING: headers set with this option will be  set  in  all  re-
              quests  - even after redirects are followed, like when told with
              -L, --location. This can lead to the header being sent to  other
              hosts  than  the  original  host, so sensitive headers should be
              used with caution combined with following redirects.

              This option can be used  multiple  times  to  add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

       -h, --help
              Usage  help.  This lists all current command line options with a
              short description.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SFTP SCP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
              string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
              public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
              the md5sums match.

              Added in 7.17.1.

       --http0.9
              (HTTP) Tells curl to be fine with HTTP version 0.9 response.

              HTTP/0.9  is  a completely headerless response and therefore you
              can also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still  get  a
              response since curl will simply transparently downgrade - if al-
              lowed.

              A future curl version will deny continuing if the response isn't
              at least HTTP/1.0 unless this option is used.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
              internally preferred HTTP version.

              This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1.

              This option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added  in
              7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  non-TLS HTTP requests using
              HTTP/2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade.  It  requires  prior  knowledge
              that  the  server  supports HTTP/2 straight away. HTTPS requests
              will still do HTTP/2 the standard way with  negotiated  protocol
              version in the TLS handshake.

              --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the underlying libcurl was
              built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
              --http1.0 and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 2.

              See also --no-alpn. --http2 requires that the underlying libcurl
              was built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and
              -0, --http1.0 and --http2-prior-knowledge. Added in 7.33.0.

       --ignore-content-length
              (FTP  HTTP)  For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is
              particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x,  which  will
              report  incorrect  Content-Length  for files larger than 2 giga-
              bytes.

              For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out  the
              size before downloading a file.

       -i, --include
              Include  the  HTTP  response headers in the output. The HTTP re-
              sponse headers can include things  like  server  name,  cookies,
              date of the document, HTTP version and more...

              To view the request headers, consider the -v, --verbose option.

              See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
              (TLS) By default, every SSL connection curl makes is verified to
              be secure. This option allows curl to proceed and  operate  even
              for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

              The  server  connection  is verified by making sure the server's
              certificate contains the right name  and  verifies  successfully
              using the cert store.

              See this online resource for further details:
               https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

              See also --proxy-insecure and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

              Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
              interface name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              On  Linux  it can be used to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
              to either have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root.  More  informa-
              tion   about  Linux  VRF:  https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
              tion/networking/vrf.txt

              See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
              This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses  only,
              and not for example try IPv6.

              See  also  --http1.1  and  --http2.  This  option  overrides -6,
              --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
              This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses  only,
              and not for example try IPv4.

              See  also  --http1.1  and  --http2.  This  option  overrides -4,
              --ipv4.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
              option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
              sically have the same effect as if a  new  session  is  started.
              Typical  browsers  always  discard  session cookies when they're
              closed down.

              See also -b, --cookie and -c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle  be-
              fore  sending  keepalive  probes and the time between individual
              keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
              offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and  TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
              (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has  no
              effect if --no-keepalive is used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
              If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
              (TLS) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
              vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key <key>
              (TLS SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
              vate  key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified, curl
              tries the following candidates in order:

              If curl is built against OpenSSL library, and the engine  pkcs11
              is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
              ify a private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A  string  begin-
              ning  with  "pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
              PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the --engine option will be set as
              "pkcs11"  if none was provided and the --key-type option will be
              set as "ENG" if none was provided.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must  be
              entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that  is  not  one  of  these,
              'private' will instead be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              --krb  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support
              Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
              will  get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that
              does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              If this option is used several times, the last given  file  name
              will be used.

              Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you want curl to use - for
              both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a
              limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire
              bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
              appended.   Appending  'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilo-
              bytes, 'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes  it
              gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              If  you  also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will
              take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP  POP3)  (FTP)  When  listing  an FTP directory, this switch
              forces a name-only view. This is especially useful if  the  user
              wants  to  machine-parse  the contents of an FTP directory since
              the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format.
              When used like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent
              to the server instead of LIST.

              Note: Some FTP servers list only  files  in  their  response  to
              NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

              (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
              forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
              particularly  useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes-
              sage id exists on the server and what size it is.

              Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be  used
              to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
              unique identifier rather than it's message id to  make  the  re-
              quest.

              Added in 7.21.5.

       --local-port <num/range>
              Set  a  preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
              numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
              nature  are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so set-
              ting this range to something too narrow might cause  unnecessary
              connection setup failures.

              Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP)  Like  -L,  --location, but will allow sending the name +
              password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or
              may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to
              a site to which you'll send your authentication info  (which  is
              plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

              See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
              (HTTP)  If  the server reports that the requested page has moved
              to a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a
              3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the request
              on the new place. If used together with  -i,  --include  or  -I,
              --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When au-
              thentication is used, curl only sends  its  credentials  to  the
              initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
              won't be able to intercept the user+password. See  also  --loca-
              tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of
              redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain  GET
              (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
              a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
              code was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the following re-
              quest using the same unmodified method.

              You can tell curl to not change the non-GET  request  method  to
              GET  after  a  30x  response  by using the dedicated options for
              that: --post301, --post302 and --post303.

       --login-options <options>
              (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use during  server
              authentication.

              You  can  use the login options to specify protocol specific op-
              tions that may be used during authentication.  At  present  only
              IMAP,  POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information
              about the login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092  and  IETF
              draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
              the authentication address (identity)  of  a  submitted  message
              that is being relayed to another server.

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP)  Specify  a single address that the given mail should get
              sent from.

              See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.
              Repeat this option several times to send to multiple recipients.

              When  performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify a
              valid email address to send the mail to.

              When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the  re-
              cipient  should  be  specified as the user name or user name and
              domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

              When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recip-
              ient  should  be  specified using the mailing list name, such as
              "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

              Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to  download.  If
              the  file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              A size modifier may be used. For example, Appending 'k'  or  'K'
              will  count  the  number  as  kilobytes,  'm'  or  'M'  makes it
              megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples:  200K,
              3m and 1G. (Added in 7.58.0)

              NOTE:  The  file size is not always known prior to download, and
              for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
              fer  ends  up  being larger than this given limit. This concerns
              both FTP and HTTP transfers.

              See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
              (HTTP) Set maximum  number  of  redirection-followings  allowed.
              When  -L,  --location is used, is used to prevent curl from fol-
              lowing redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is  set
              to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it unlimited.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds that you allow the whole operation to
              take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from  hang-
              ing  for  hours due to slow networks or links going down.  Since
              7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
              out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
              in decimal precision.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
              This option can tell curl to parse and process a  given  URI  as
              Metalink  file  (both  version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported)
              and make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if  there
              are  errors (such as the file or server not being available). It
              will also verify the hash of the file after  the  download  com-
              pletes.  The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in
              memory and not stored in the local file system.

              Example to use a remote Metalink file:

               curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

              To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE proto-
              col (file://):

               curl --metalink file://example.metalink

              Please  note  that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way
              to use a local Metalink file at the time of this  writing.  Also
              note  that  if  --metalink  and -i, --include are used together,
              --include will be ignored. This is because including headers  in
              the  response  will break Metalink parser and if the headers are
              included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will
              fail.

              --metalink  requires  that  the  underlying libcurl was built to
              support metalink. Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication.

              This option requires a library built with GSS-API or  SSPI  sup-
              port.  Use  -V,  --version  to  see  if  your curl supports GSS-
              API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u,  --user
              option  to  activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
              '-u :' is enough as the user name  and  password  from  the  -u,
              --user option aren't actually used.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, only the first one is
              used.

              See also --basic and --ntlm and --anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
              This option is similar to -n, --netrc, except that  you  provide
              the  path  (absolute  or  relative)  to the netrc file that curl
              should use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation.
              If  several --netrc-file options are provided, the last one will
              be used.

              It will abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

              This option overrides -n, --netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to -n, --netrc, but this option  makes  the  .netrc
              usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

              See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc  (_netrc  on Windows) file in the
              user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-
              cally  used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will enable
              user authentication. See netrc(5) ftp(1) for details on the file
              format.  Curl  will  not  complain if that file doesn't have the
              right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-read-
              able).  The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home
              directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to  al-
              low  curl  to  FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name
              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -:, --next
              Tells curl to use a separate operation for the following URL and
              associated  options.  This  allows  you  to send several URL re-
              quests, each with their own specific options, for example,  such
              as different user names or custom requests for each.

              -:,  --next  will  reset  all local options and only global ones
              will have their values survive over to the  operation  following
              the  -:,  --next  instruction. Global options include -v, --ver-
              bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

              For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a  single  com-
              mand line:

               curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis www2.example.com

              Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
              (HTTPS)  Disable  the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled by de-
              fault if libcurl was built with an  SSL  library  that  supports
              ALPN.  ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negoti-
              ate HTTP/2 support with the server during https sessions.

              See also --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that  the  un-
              derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-
              uations, curl will use a standard buffered  output  stream  that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
              necessarily exactly when the data arrives.   Using  this  option
              will disable that buffering.

              Note  that  this  is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on  the  TCP  connection.
              curl otherwise enables them by default.

              Note  that  this  is the negated option name documented. You can
              thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-npn
              (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
              if  libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN
              is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2  to  negotiate  HTTP/2
              support with the server during https sessions.

              See  also  --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires that the un-
              derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-sessionid
              (TLS) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By  default
              all  transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing
              should ever get hurt by attempting  to  reuse  SSL  session-IDs,
              there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
              require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

              Note that this is the negated option name  documented.  You  can
              thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

              Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated  list  of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one
              is specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character,  which
              matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
              in this list is matched as either a domain  which  contains  the
              hostname,  or  the hostname itself. For example, local.com would
              match  local.com,  local.com:80,  and  www.local.com,  but   not
              www.notlocal.com.

              Since  7.53.0,  This  option overrides the environment variables
              that disable the proxy. If there's an environment variable  dis-
              abling a proxy, you can set noproxy list to "" to override it.

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
              (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
              the authentication to the separate binary  ntlmauth  application
              that is executed when needed.

              See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
              method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
              It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo-
              ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior  should  not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
              who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
              tion method instead, such as Digest.

              If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
              use --proxy-ntlm.

              If this option is used several times,  only  the  first  one  is
              used.

              See  also  --proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires  that  the underlying
              libcurl was built to support TLS. This option overrides  --basic
              and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
              (IMAP  POP3  SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server
              authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the
              user  name  which  can  be specified as part of the --url or -u,
              --user options.

              The Bearer Token and user name are formatted  according  to  RFC
              6750.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
              [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#'  followed  by  a
              number  in  the <file> specifier. That variable will be replaced
              with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

               curl http://{one,two}.example.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

               curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
              have.  For  example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
              line, you can use it like this:

                curl -o aa example.com -o bb example.net

              and the order of the -o options and  the  URLs  doesn't  matter,
              just  that  the  first -o is for the first URL and so on, so the
              above command line can also be written as

                curl example.com example.net -o aa -o bb

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
              ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)
              will force the output to be done to stdout.

              See also -O, --remote-name and --remote-name-all and  -J,  --re-
              mote-header-name.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSH TLS) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --path-as-is
              Tell  curl  to  not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given
              URL path. Normally curl will squash or merge them  according  to
              standards but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

              Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the  specified  public key file (or
              hashes) to verify the peer. This can be a path to a  file  which
              contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number
              of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
              rated by ';'

              When  negotiating  a  TLS  or SSL connection, the server sends a
              certificate indicating its identity. A public key  is  extracted
              from  this certificate and if it does not exactly match the pub-
              lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              PEM/DER support:
                7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit
                7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL/CyaSSL
                7.47.0: mbedtls
                7.49.0: PolarSSL sha256 support:
                7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL/CyaSSL.
                7.47.0: mbedtls
                7.49.0: PolarSSL Other SSL backends not supported.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The
              non-RFC  behaviour  is  ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does
              the conversion by default to maintain  consistency.  However,  a
              server  may  require  a POST to remain a POST after such a redi-
              rection. This option is meaningful only when using  -L,  --loca-
              tion.

              See  also  --post302  and --post303 and -L, --location. Added in
              7.17.1.

       --post302
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The
              non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers,  so  curl  does
              the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after  such  a  redi-
              rection.  This  option is meaningful only when using -L, --loca-
              tion.

              See also --post301 and --post303 and -L,  --location.  Added  in
              7.19.1.

       --post303
              (HTTP) Tells curl to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
              requests into GET requests when following  303  redirections.  A
              server may require a POST to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
              ion. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

              See also --post302 and --post301 and -L,  --location.  Added  in
              7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
              HTTPS -x, --proxy. In such a case curl  first  connects  to  the
              SOCKS  proxy  and  then  connects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or
              HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

              The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
              fix  to  specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use socks4://,
              socks4a://, socks5:// or  socks5h://  to  request  the  specific
              SOCKS  version  to be used. No protocol specified will make curl
              default to SOCKS4.

              If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,  it  is
              assumed to be 1080.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special  charac-
              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
              stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

              This progress bar draws a single line of '#'  characters  across
              the screen and shows a percentage if the transfer size is known.
              For transfers without a known size, there  will  be  space  ship
              (-=o=-)  that  moves back and forth but only while data is being
              transferred, with a set of flying hash sign symbols on top.

       --proto-default <protocol>
              Tells curl to use protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

              Example:

               curl --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org

              An unknown or unsupported  protocol  causes  error  CURLE_UNSUP-
              PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

              This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

              Without  this  option curl would make a guess based on the host,
              see --url for details.

              Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells curl to limit what protocols it may use on redirect.  Pro-
              tocols  denied by --proto are not overridden by this option. See
              --proto for how protocols are represented.

              Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

               curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

              By default curl will allow all protocols on redirect except sev-
              eral  disabled  for  security reasons: Since 7.19.4 FILE and SCP
              are disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are  also  disabled.
              Specifying  all  or  +all enables all protocols on redirect, in-
              cluding those disabled for security.

              Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells curl to limit what protocols it may use in  the  transfer.
              Protocols  are evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and
              are each a protocol name or

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
                 ted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny  this  protocol,  removing it from the list of protocols
                 already permitted.

              =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already  permit-
                 ted),  though subject to later modification by subsequent en-
                 tries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

       Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely
       on being able to disable potentially dangerous protocols, without rely-
       ing upon support for that protocol being built into curl  to  avoid  an
       error.

       This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect is the
       same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of the option.

       See also --proto-redir and --proto-default. Added in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when  commu-
              nicating  with  the  given HTTP proxy. This might cause an extra
              request/response round-trip.

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added
              in 7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote  host.  Basic  is  the default authentication method curl
              uses with proxies.

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
              Same as --cacert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              See also  --proxy-capath  and  --cacert  and  --capath  and  -x,
              --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
              Same as --capath but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              See  also  --proxy-cacert and -x, --proxy and --capath. Added in
              7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
              Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
              Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
              Same as --ciphers but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
              Same as --crlfile but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when  communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

              See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
              (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending  HTTP
              to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is
              the equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy  communi-
              cation  only  like  in CONNECT requests when you want a separate
              header sent to the proxy to what is sent to  the  actual  remote
              host.

              curl  will  make  sure  that each header you add/replace is sent
              with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
              as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
              returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              Headers specified with this option will not be included  in  re-
              quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

              Starting  in  7.55.0, this option can take an argument in @file-
              name style, which then adds a header for each line in the  input
              file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
              multiple headers.

              Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
              Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type <type>
              Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
              Same as --key but used in HTTPS proxy context.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate  (SPNEGO)  authentication  when
              communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
              HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

              See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM  authentication  when  communicating
              with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
              host.

              See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
              Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
              (TLS) Tells curl to  use  the  specified  public  key  file  (or
              hashes)  to verify the proxy. This can be a path to a file which
              contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number
              of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
              rated by ';'

              When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection,  the  server  sends  a
              certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
              from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the  pub-
              lic  key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection
              before sending or receiving any data.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change the service name for proxy  ne-
              gotiation.

              Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
              Same as --ssl-allow-beast but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
              (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection to
              your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
              suites  must  specify  valid  ciphers. Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher
              suite details on this URL:

               https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
              Same as --tlsauthtype but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
              Same as --tlspassword but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
              Same as --tlsuser but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
              Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for proxy  authentica-
              tion.

              If  you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Ne-
              gotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to  select
              the user name and password from your environment by specifying a
              single colon with this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
              Use the specified proxy.

              The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix.  No
              protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
              socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request a spe-
              cific SOCKS version to be used.  (The protocol support was added
              in curl 7.21.7)

              HTTPS proxy support via https:// protocol prefix  was  added  in
              7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

              Unrecognized  and  unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause an error
              since 7.52.0.  Prior versions may ignore the  protocol  and  use
              http:// instead.

              If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
              assumed to be 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment  variables  that  set
              the  proxy  to use. If there's an environment variable setting a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans-
              parently  be  converted  to HTTP. It means that certain protocol
              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case
              if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
              ytunnel option.

              User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
              URL  decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special charac-
              ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the  proxy
              environment  variables,  including the protocol prefix (http://)
              and the embedded user + password.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If  the  port  number  is  not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The  only  difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
              --proxy, is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy  will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When  an  HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this option will cause
              non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through  the  proxy  in-
              stead  of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tunnel
              approach is made with the HTTP proxy  CONNECT  request  and  re-
              quires  that  the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
              number curl wants to tunnel through to.

              To suppress proxy CONNECT response headers when curl is  set  to
              output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

              See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SFTP SCP) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
              lic key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public
              key  from the private key file, so passing this option is gener-
              ally not required. Note that this public key extraction requires
              libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher
              that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

       -Q, --quote
              (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
              server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP  transfer,  to  be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent  after
              curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
              command(s), prefix the command with a '+'  (this  is  only  sup-
              ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

              If  the  server returns failure for one of the commands, the en-
              tire operation will be aborted. You must send syntactically cor-
              rect  FTP  commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of
              the commands listed below to SFTP servers.

              This option can be used multiple times. When speaking to an  FTP
              server,  prefix  the  command  with an asterisk (*) to make curl
              continue even if the command fails as by default curl will  stop
              at first failure.

              SFTP  is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
              quote commands itself before sending them to the  server.   File
              names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
              acters.  Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote  com-
              mands:

              chgrp group file
                     The  chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by
                     the file operand to the group ID specified by  the  group
                     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The  chmod  command  modifies  the  file mode bits of the
                     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
                     number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
                     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user  oper-
                     and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
                     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file  loca-
                     tion.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The  mkdir command creates the directory named by the di-
                     rectory_name operand.

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
                     rent working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
                     the source operand to the destination path named  by  the
                     target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file op-
                     erand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory  entry  specified
                     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       --random-file <file>
              Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
              as random data. The data may be used to seed the  random  engine
              for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
              ment) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP  server  or  a  local  FILE.
              Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP)

              (*)  = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a mul-
              tipart response!

              Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and  'stop'
              fields  of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit charac-
              ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
              ified, depending on the server's configuration.

              You  should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have
              this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get  a  range,
              you'll instead get the whole document.

              FTP  and  SFTP  range  downloads only support the simple 'start-
              stop' syntax (optionally with one of the numbers  omitted).  FTP
              use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con-
              tent or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on  un-
              altered, raw.

              Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
              This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
              used  with  -L,  --location  you  can  append ";auto" to the -e,
              --referer URL to make curl automatically set  the  previous  URL
              when  it  follows  a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be
              used alone, even if you don't set an initial -e, --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -A, --user-agent and -H, --header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
              server-specified  Content-Disposition  filename  instead  of ex-
              tracting a filename from the URL.

              If the server specifies a file name and a file  with  that  name
              already  exists  in the current working directory it will not be
              overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
              ify a file name then this option has no effect.

              There's  no  attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
              file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
              file names.

              WARNING:  Exercise  judicious  use of this option, especially on
              Windows. A rogue server could send you the  name  of  a  DLL  or
              other  file  that could possibly be loaded automatically by Win-
              dows or some third party software.

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to  be
              dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
              all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

              Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
              (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is  cut
              off.)

              The  file will be saved in the current working directory. If you
              want the file saved in a  different  directory,  make  sure  you
              change  the  current working directory before invoking curl with
              this option.

              The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
              given  URL,  nothing  else,  and if it already exists it will be
              overwritten. If you want the server to be  able  to  choose  the
              file name refer to -J, --remote-header-name which can be used in
              addition to this option. If the server chooses a file  name  and
              that name already exists it will not be overwritten.

              There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
              other URL encoded parts of the name, they will end up  as-is  as
              file name.

              You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
              have.

       -R, --remote-time
              When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out  the  time-
              stamp  of the remote file, and if that is available make the lo-
              cal file get that same timestamp.

       --request-target
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use an alternative "target" (path)  instead
              of  using  the  path as provided in the URL. Particularly useful
              when wanting to issue HTTP requests  without  leading  slash  or
              other  data  that  doesn't  follow the regular URL pattern, like
              "OPTIONS *".

              Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
              ing  with the HTTP server.  The specified request method will be
              used instead of the method otherwise  used  (which  defaults  to
              GET).  Read  the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explana-
              tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT  and  DELETE,
              but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
              and more.

              Normally you don't need this option. All  sorts  of  GET,  HEAD,
              POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com-
              mand line options.

              This option only changes the actual word used in  the  HTTP  re-
              quest, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for example if
              you want to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD  will  not
              suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

              The  method  string  you set with -X, --request will be used for
              all requests, which if you for example use  -L,  --location  may
              cause  unintended  side-effects when curl doesn't change request
              method according to the HTTP 30x response codes - and similar.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
              doing file lists with FTP.

              (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
              RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

              (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead  of  LIST.
              (Added in 7.30.0)

              (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
              VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --resolve <host:port:address[,address]...>
              Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair.  Us-
              ing  this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified ad-
              dress and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to  be
              used.  Consider  it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on
              the command line. The port number should be the number used  for
              the  specific  protocol  the host will be used for. It means you
              need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
              host but different ports.

              By  specifying '*' as host you can tell curl to resolve any host
              and specific port pair to the specified address. Wildcard is re-
              solved  last so any --resolve with a specific host and port will
              be used first.

              The provided address set by this option will be used even if -4,
              --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

              Support for providing the IP address within [brackets] was added
              in 7.57.0.

              Support for providing multiple IP addresses per entry was  added
              in 7.59.0.

              Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

              This option can be used many times to add many host names to re-
              solve.

              Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-connrefused
              In addition to the other conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as  a
              transient  error  too  for --retry. This option is used together
              with --retry.

              Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before  each  retry  when  a
              transfer  has  failed with a transient error (it changes the de-
              fault backoff time algorithm between retries).  This  option  is
              only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
              zero will make curl use the default backoff time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt.  Re-
              tries  will  be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
              hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
              reached  the  limit, the request will be made and while perform-
              ing, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit  a
              single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this op-
              tion to zero to not timeout retries.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries  to  perform  a
              transfer,  it  will retry this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which  is  the
              default).  Transient  error  means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
              response code or an HTTP 408 or 5xx response code.

              When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
              second  and  then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
              delay  between  the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay
              you  disable  this  exponential  backoff  algorithm.  See   also
              --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-ir
              Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

              Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
              This option allows you to change the service name for SPNEGO.

              Examples:    --negotiate    --service-name   sockd   would   use
              sockd/server-name.

              Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
              if it fails.

       -s, --silent
              Silent  or  quiet  mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-
              sages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data  you  ask
              for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
              it.

              Use -S, --show-error in  addition  to  this  option  to  disable
              progress meter but still show error messages.

              See also -v, --verbose and --stderr.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
              fied, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the  same  time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec-
              ified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol  pre-
              fix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-basic
              Tells curl to use username/password authentication when connect-
              ing  to a SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication is
              enabled by default.  Use --socks5-gssapi to  force  GSS-API  au-
              thentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
              ated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should  be  protected,
              but  the  NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.  The option
              --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
              tection mode negotiation.

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
              This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:  --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service   sockd
              would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
              service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for  cases
              where the proxy-name does not match the principal name.

              Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi
              Tells  curl  to  use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a
              SOCKS5 proxy.  The GSS-API authentication is enabled by  default
              (if  curl is compiled with GSS-API support).  Use --socks5-basic
              to force username/password authentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

              Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the  proxy  resolve  the
              host  name).  If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
              at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto-
              col prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the same time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host  name  lo-
              cally.  If  the  port  number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
              are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
              socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a SOCKS proxy at
              the  same  time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
              such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
              nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              This  option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
              or LDAP.

              Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec-
              ond)  for  speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set
              with -y, --speed-time and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y, --speed-time <seconds>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
              a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
              used, the default speed-limit will be  1  unless  set  with  -Y,
              --speed-limit.

              This  option  controls  transfers  and thus will not affect slow
              connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the
              SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option  isn't
              used,  the SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause interop-
              erability problems with some older SSL implementations. WARNING:
              this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you
              ask for exactly that.

              Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
              (Schannel) This option tells curl to disable certificate revoca-
              tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
              by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

              Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Termi-
              nates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd.

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP POP3 SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Re-
              verts to a non-secure connection if the server  doesn't  support
              SSL/TLS.   See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for differ-
              ent levels of encryption required.

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added  in  7.11.0).
              That  option name can still be used but will be removed in a fu-
              ture version.

              Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
              remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv2 sup-
              port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -2, --sslv2  requires  that  the
              underlying  libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option over-
              rides -3, --sslv3 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating  with  a
              remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv3 sup-
              port. SSLv3 is widely considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -3, --sslv3  requires  that  the
              underlying  libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option over-
              rides -2, --sslv2 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead.  If
              the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
              Enables  the automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
              headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to  switch  them
              off.

              Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
              When  -p,  --proxytunnel  is  used and a CONNECT request is made
              don't output proxy CONNECT  response  headers.  This  option  is
              meant  to  be used with -D, --dump-header or -i, --include which
              are used to show protocol headers in the output. It has  no  ef-
              fect  on  debug options such as -v, --verbose or --trace, or any
              statistics.

              See also -D, --dump-header and -i, --include and -p, --proxytun-
              nel.

       --tcp-fastopen
              Enable use of TCP Fast Open (RFC7413).

              Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
              page for details about this option.

              Since 7.50.2, curl sets this option by default and you  need  to
              explicitly switch it off if you don't want it on.

              Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
              size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
              a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
              (TFTP) Tells curl not to send TFTP options requests.

              This  option  improves  interop with some legacy servers that do
              not acknowledge or properly implement TFTP  options.  When  this
              option is used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

              Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
              (HTTP  FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the
              given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that
              time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
              if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename
              and  tries  to get the modification date (mtime) from <file> in-
              stead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression de-
              tails.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
              a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
              (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
              acceptable version  is  set  by  tlsv1.0,  tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2  or
              tlsv1.3.

              default
                     Use up to recommended TLS version.

              1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

              1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

              1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

              1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       See also --tlsv1.0 and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3. --tls-max
       requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <list of TLS 1.3 ciphersuites>
              (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection if
              it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers suites  must  specify
              valid  ciphers.  Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details on this
              URL:

               https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
              Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only  supported  op-
              tion  is  "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If  --tlsuser  and
              --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
              option  defaults to "SRP".  This option works only if the under-
              lying libcurl is built  with  TLS-SRP  support,  which  requires
              OpenSSL or GnuTLS with TLS-SRP support.

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword
              Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method speci-
              fied with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
              Set username for use with the TLS authentication  method  speci-
              fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
              set.

              Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
              (TLS)  Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 or later when connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
              (TLS) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 or later when  connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
              (TLS)  Forces curl to use TLS version 1.3 or later when connect-
              ing to a remote TLS server.

              Note that TLS 1.3 is only supported by a subset of TLS backends.
              At the time of this writing, they are BoringSSL, NSS, and Secure
              Transport (on iOS 11 or later, and macOS 10.13 or later).

              Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Tells curl to use at least TLS version 1.x when  negotiat-
              ing  with  a  remote  TLS  server. That means TLS version 1.0 or
              higher

              See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
              underlying  libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option over-
              rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
              of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while
              receiving it.

              Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, in-
              cluding  descriptive  information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
              only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              This option overrides --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl
              displays.

              Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, in-
              cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
              "-"  as  filename  to have the output sent to stdout. Use "%" as
              filename to have the output sent to stderr.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              This option overrides -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
              (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
              the network.

              Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If
              there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
              directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
              name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
              fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
              be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
              given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a single period)
              may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
              mode  to  allow  reading  server output while stdin is being up-
              loaded.

              You can specify one -T, --upload-file for each URL on  the  com-
              mand  line.  Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies what to
              upload and to where. curl also supports "globbing"  of  the  -T,
              --upload-file  argument,  meaning  that  you can upload multiple
              files to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style  sup-
              ported in the URL, like this:

               curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" http://www.example.com

              or even

               curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/upload/

              When  uploading  to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed
              to be RFC 5322 formatted. It has to feature the necessary set of
              headers  and  mail  body formatted correctly by the user as curl
              will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

       --url <url>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
              want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              If  the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
              "ftp://" etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host.  If
              the  outermost  sub-domain  name  matches DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP,
              POP3 or SMTP then that protocol will  be  used,  otherwise  HTTP
              will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
              default protocol, see --proto-default for details.

              This option may be used any number of times.  To  control  where
              this  URL  is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-
              name options.

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also be  en-
              forced  by  using  a  URL  that ends with ";type=A". This option
              causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

       -A, --user-agent <name>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
              To  encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single
              quote marks. This header can also be set with the  -H,  --header
              or the --proxy-header options.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server authentica-
              tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you simply specify the user name,  curl  will  prompt  for  a
              password.

              The  user  name  and  passwords are split up on the first colon,
              which makes it impossible to use a colon in the user  name  with
              this option. The password can, still.

              When  using  Kerberos  V5 with a Windows based server you should
              include the Windows domain name in the user name, in  order  for
              the  server  to  successfully  obtain  a Kerberos Ticket. If you
              don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

              When using NTLM, the user name can be specified  simply  as  the
              user  name,  without the domain, if there is a single domain and
              forest in your setup for example.

              To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon  Name  or
              UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
              user@example.com respectively.

              If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and  perform  Ker-
              beros  V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can
              tell curl to select the user name and password from  your  envi-
              ronment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes  curl  verbose  during the operation. Useful for debugging
              and seeing what's going on "under the  hood".  A  line  starting
              with  '>'  means  "header  data" sent by curl, '<' means "header
              data" received by curl that is hidden in  normal  cases,  and  a
              line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
              be the option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give you enough  details,
              consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

              See  also  -i,  --include.  This  option  overrides  --trace and
              --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
              other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The  second  line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
              that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
              libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols are supported, such as
                     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S and so on.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is
                     supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              Debug  This  curl  uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
                     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For  curl-
                     developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This  curl  uses asynchronous name resolves. Asynchronous
                     name resolves can be done using either the c-ares or  the
                     threaded resolver backends.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
                     than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              GSS-API
                     GSS-API is supported.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is  supported
                     for TLS.

              HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has been built-in.

              UnixSockets
                     Unix sockets support is provided.

              HTTPS-proxy
                     This curl is built to support HTTPS proxy.

              Metalink
                     This  curl  supports  Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC
                     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will
                     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the
                     file or server not being available).

              PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means  that  this
                     curl  has  been  built  with knowledge about "public suf-
                     fixes".

              MultiSSL
                     This curl supports multiple TLS backends.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Make curl display information on stdout after a completed trans-
              fer.  The  format  is a string that may contain plain text mixed
              with any number of variables. The format can be specified  as  a
              literal  "string",  or  you can have curl read the format from a
              file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the  format  from
              stdin you write "@-".

              The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted
              by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described  below.
              All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
              normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              The  output  will be written to standard output, but this can be
              switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
              where  all  occurrences of % must be doubled when using this op-
              tion.

              The variables available are:

              content_type   The Content-Type of the  requested  document,  if
                             there was any.

              filename_effective
                             The  ultimate  filename  that curl writes out to.
                             This is only meaningful if curl is told to  write
                             to  a  file  with  the  -O,  --remote-name or -o,
                             --output option. It's most useful in  combination
                             with  the -J, --remote-header-name option. (Added
                             in 7.26.0)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
                             to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the
                             last retrieved HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer.  In
                             7.18.2  the alias response_code was added to show
                             the same info.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was found in the last re-
                             sponse  (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request.
                             (Added in 7.12.4)

              http_version   The  http  version  that  was  effectively  used.
                             (Added in 7.50.0)

              local_ip       The  IP  address of the local end of the most re-
                             cently done connection - can be  either  IPv4  or
                             IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

              local_port     The  local  port number of the most recently done
                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent  trans-
                             fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
                             quest. (Added in 7.12.3)

              proxy_ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
                             cate verification that was requested. 0 means the
                             verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

              redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
                             tion  to follow redirects (or when --max-redir is
                             met), this variable will show the  actual  URL  a
                             redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              remote_ip      The  remote  IP address of the most recently done
                             connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in
                             7.29.0)

              remote_port    The  remote port number of the most recently done
                             connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              scheme         The URL scheme (sometimes called  protocol)  that
                             was effectively used (Added in 7.52.0)

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
                             ers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
                             HTTP request.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
                             the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl  measured  for
                             the complete upload. Bytes per second.

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-
                             tion that was requested. 0 means the verification
                             was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

              stderr         From  this  point  on, the -w, --write-out output
                             will be written  to  standard  error.  (Added  in
                             7.63.0)

              stdout         From  this  point  on, the -w, --write-out output
                             will be written to standard output.  This is  the
                             default,  but  can  be  used to switch back after
                             switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

              time_appconnect
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start  un-
                             til  the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the re-
                             mote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start  un-
                             til the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy)
                             was completed.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start  un-
                             til the name resolving was completed.

              time_pretransfer
                             The  time, in seconds, it took from the start un-
                             til the file transfer was just  about  to  begin.
                             This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
                             tiations that are specific to the particular pro-
                             tocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
                             steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
                             and  transfer  before  the  final transaction was
                             started. time_redirect shows the complete  execu-
                             tion  time  for  multiple redirections. (Added in
                             7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start  un-
                             til  the  first  byte was just about to be trans-
                             ferred. This includes time_pretransfer  and  also
                             the  time  the server needed to calculate the re-
                             sult.

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full  opera-
                             tion lasted.

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
                             ingful if you've told curl  to  follow  location:
                             headers.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --xattr
              When  saving  output  to a file, this option tells curl to store
              certain file metadata in extended  file  attributes.  Currently,
              the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP,
              the content type is stored in the mime_type  attribute.  If  the
              file  system  does not support extended attributes, a warning is
              issued.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the pro-
              tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified  in  a
              URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the  proxy  server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
              set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
              to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
              list is matched as either a domain name which contains the host-
              name, or the hostname itself.

              This  environment  variable  disables use of the proxy even when
              specified with the -x,  --proxy  option.  That  is  NO_PROXY=di-
              rect.example.com  curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com  http://di-
              rect.example.com  accesses  the   target   URL   directly,   and
              NO_PROXY=direct.example.com   curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com
              http://somewhere.example.com accesses the target URL through the
              proxy.

              The  list  of  host  names  can also be include numerical IP ad-
              dresses, and IPv6 versions should then be given without  enclos-
              ing brackets.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the  string
       doesn't  match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
              Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy. The default if no scheme  pre-
              fix is used.

       https://
              Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding er-
       ror messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of this
       writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
              protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the  desired  re-
              quest  was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at build-time.
              To make curl able to do this, you probably need another build of
              libcurl!

       5      Couldn't  resolve  proxy.  The given proxy host could not be re-
              solved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
              the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
              the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While waiting for the server to connect back
              when an active FTP session is used, an error code was sent  over
              the control connection or similar.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASS request.

       12     During an active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
              connect back to curl, the timeout expired.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
              PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the  227-line  the
              server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the
              227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2 framing layer.
              This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
              see the error message for details.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to  bi-
              nary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP  couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or simi-
              lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or  re-
              turned  another  error  with  the  HTTP  error code being 400 or
              above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local  filesystem  or
              similar.

       25     FTP  couldn't  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
              used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached ac-
              cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT  failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
              support the PORT command, try doing a transfer  using  PASV  in-
              stead!

       31     FTP  couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
              used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted  down-
              load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
              ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing  interface  could  not  be
              used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
              mum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl.  This  indicates  that  you
              passed  a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here  is  considered  an
              error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer  certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA certifi-
              cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not  accepted  and  curl
              failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could  not  load  CRL  file,  missing  or wrong format (added in
              7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-
              ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.haxx.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.64.0                    November 16, 2016                       curl(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html
list of all man pages