dpkg-architecture(1)



dpkg-architecture(1)              dpkg suite              dpkg-architecture(1)

NAME
       dpkg-architecture  -  set  and  determine  the architecture for package
       building

SYNOPSIS
       dpkg-architecture [option...] [command]

DESCRIPTION
       dpkg-architecture provides a facility to determine and  set  the  build
       and host architecture for package building.

       The  build  architecture  is  always  determined by an external call to
       dpkg(1), and cannot be set at the command line.

       You can specify the host architecture by providing one or both  of  the
       options  --host-arch  and  --host-type. The default is determined by an
       external call to gcc(1), or the same as the build architecture if CC or
       gcc  are  both not available. One out of --host-arch and --host-type is
       sufficient, the value of the other will be set  to  a  usable  default.
       Indeed,   it   is   often   better   to   only   specify  one,  because
       dpkg-architecture will warn you if  your  choice  does  not  match  the
       default.

COMMANDS
       -l, --list
              Print  the  environment  variables, one each line, in the format
              VARIABLE=value. This is the default action.

       -e, --equal architecture
              Check for equality of architecture  (since  dpkg  1.13.13).   It
              compares  the  current  or  specified  Debian  host architecture
              against architecture, to check if they are equal.   This  action
              will  not  expand  the architecture wildcards.  Command finishes
              with an exit status of 0 if matched, 1 if not matched.

       -i, --is architecture-wildcard
              Check for identity of architecture  (since  dpkg  1.13.13).   It
              compares  the  current  or  specified  Debian  host architecture
              against architecture-wildcard after having  expanded  it  as  an
              architecture wildcard, to check if they match.  Command finishes
              with an exit status of 0 if matched, 1 if not matched.

       -q, --query variable-name
              Print the value of a single variable.

       -s, --print-set
              Print an export command. This can be used to set the environment
              variables using eval.

       -u, --print-unset
              Print  a  similar  command  to  --print-unset  but  to unset all
              variables.

       -c, --command command
              Execute a command in an environment which has all variables  set
              to the determined value.

       -L, --list-known
              Print  a  list of valid architecture names.  Possibly restricted
              by  one  or  more  of  the  matching  options  --match-wildcard,
              --match-bits or --match-endian (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

       --version
              Show the version and exit.

OPTIONS
       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Set the host Debian architecture.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Set the host GNU system type.

       -A, --target-arch architecture
              Set the target Debian architecture (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       -T, --target-type gnu-system-type
              Set the target GNU system type (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       -W, --match-wildcard architecture-wildcard
              Restrict  the  architectures  listed  by  --list-known  to  ones
              matching  the  specified  architecture  wildcard   (since   dpkg
              1.17.14).

       -B, --match-bits architecture-bits
              Restrict  the  architectures listed by --list-known to ones with
              the specified CPU bits (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either 32 or 64.

       -E, --match-endian architecture-endianness
              Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to  ones  with
              the  specified endianness (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either little or
              big.

       -f, --force
              Values set by existing environment variables with the same  name
              as   used   by   the   scripts   are   honored   (i.e.  used  by
              dpkg-architecture), except if this force flag is  present.  This
              allows  the  user  to  override  a  value  even when the call to
              dpkg-architecture is buried in some other  script  (for  example
              dpkg-buildpackage(1)).

TERMS
       build machine
           The machine the package is built on.

       host machine
           The machine the package is built for.

       target machine
           The machine the compiler is building for.  This is only needed when
           building a cross-toolchain, one that will be  built  on  the  build
           architecture, to be run on the host architecture, and to build code
           for the target architecture.

       Debian architecture
           The Debian architecture string, which specifies the binary tree  in
           the FTP archive. Examples: i386, sparc, hurd-i386.

       Debian architecture tuple
           A  Debian  architecture  tuple  is the fully qualified architecture
           with all its components spelled  out.   This  differs  with  Debian
           architectures in that at least the cpu component does not embed the
           abi.  The current tuple has the  form  abi-libc-os-cpu.   Examples:
           base-gnu-linux-amd64, eabihf-musl-linux-arm.

       Debian architecture wildcard
           A  Debian  architecture  wildcard  is a special architecture string
           that will match any  real  architecture  being  part  of  it.   The
           general  form  is  a  Debian  architecture  tuple with four or less
           elements, and with  at  least  one  of  them  being  any.   Missing
           elements  of the tuple are prefixed implicitly as any, and thus the
           following pairs are equivalent:
               any-any-any-any = any
               any-any-os-any = os-any
               any-libc-any-any = libc-any-any
           Examples:   linux-any,   any-i386,   hurd-any,    eabi-any-any-arm,
           musl-any-any.

       GNU system type
           An  architecture  specification  string  consisting  of  two  parts
           separated by a hyphen: cpu and system.   Examples:  i586-linux-gnu,
           sparc-linux-gnu, i686-gnu, x86_64-netbsd.

       multiarch triplet
           The  clarified  GNU  system  type, used for filesystem paths.  This
           triplet does not change even when the baseline ISA gets bumped,  so
           that  the  resulting  paths are stable over time.  The only current
           difference with the GNU system type is that the CPU part  for  i386
           based   systems   is   always   i386.    Examples:  i386-linux-gnu,
           x86_64-linux-gnu.   Example   paths:   /lib/powerpc64le-linux-gnu/,
           /usr/lib/i386-kfreebsd-gnu/.

VARIABLES
       The following variables are set by dpkg-architecture:

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the build machine.

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_BITS
           The pointer size of the build machine (in bits; since dpkg 1.15.4).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The  endianness  of  the  build  machine  (little / big; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the build machine.

       DEB_BUILD_MULTIARCH
           The clarified GNU system  type  of  the  build  machine,  used  for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the host machine.

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_BITS
           The pointer size of the host machine (in bits; since dpkg 1.15.4).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The  endianness  of  the  host  machine  (little  / big; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_HOST_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_HOST_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the host machine.

       DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH
           The clarified GNU  system  type  of  the  host  machine,  used  for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_BITS
           The  pointer  size  of  the  target  machine  (in  bits; since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The endianness of the target machine  (little  /  big;  since  dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the target machine (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_MULTIARCH
           The  clarified  GNU  system  type  of  the target machine, used for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.17.14).

FILES
   Architecture tables
       All these files have to be present for dpkg-architecture to work. Their
       location  can  be  overridden  at runtime with the environment variable
       DPKG_DATADIR.  These tables contain a format  Version  pseudo-field  on
       their  first  line  to  mark their format, so that parsers can check if
       they understand it, such as "# Version=1.0".

       /usr/share/dpkg/cputable
              Table of known CPU names and mapping to their GNU name.   Format
              version 1.0 (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       /usr/share/dpkg/ostable
              Table  of  known operating system names and mapping to their GNU
              name.  Format version 2.0 (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       /usr/share/dpkg/tupletable
              Mapping  between   Debian   architecture   tuples   and   Debian
              architecture names.  Format version 1.0 (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       /usr/share/dpkg/abitable
              Table  of  Debian  architecture ABI attribute overrides.  Format
              version 2.0 (since dpkg 1.18.11).

   Packaging support
       /usr/share/dpkg/architecture.mk
              Makefile  snippet  that  properly  sets  and  exports  all   the
              variables that dpkg-architecture outputs (since dpkg 1.16.1).

EXAMPLES
       dpkg-buildpackage   accepts   the   -a   option   and   passes   it  to
       dpkg-architecture. Other examples:

              CC=i386-gnu-gcc dpkg-architecture -c debian/rules build

              eval `dpkg-architecture -u`

       Check if the current or specified host  architecture  is  equal  to  an
       architecture:

              dpkg-architecture -elinux-alpha

              dpkg-architecture -amips -elinux-mips

       Check if the current or specified host architecture is a Linux system:

              dpkg-architecture -ilinux-any

              dpkg-architecture -ai386 -ilinux-any

   Usage in debian/rules
       The  environment  variables  set  by  dpkg-architecture  are  passed to
       debian/rules as make variables (see make documentation).  However,  you
       should  not  rely  on  them,  as  this  breaks manual invocation of the
       script.   Instead,   you   should   always   initialize   them    using
       dpkg-architecture  with  the  -q  option. Here are some examples, which
       also show how you can improve the cross  compilation  support  in  your
       package:

       Retrieving the GNU system type and forwarding it to ./configure:

           DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE)
           DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           [...]
           ifeq ($(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE), $(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE))
             confflags += --build=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           else
             confflags += --build=$(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE) \
                          --host=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           endif
           [...]
           ./configure $(confflags)

       Doing something only for a specific architecture:

           DEB_HOST_ARCH ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH)

           ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha)
             [...]
           endif

       or   if   you  only  need  to  check  the  CPU  or  OS  type,  use  the
       DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU or DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS variables.

       Note that you can also rely on an external Makefile snippet to properly
       set all the variables that dpkg-architecture can provide:

           include /usr/share/dpkg/architecture.mk

           ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha)
             [...]
           endif

       In  any  case,  you  should  never use dpkg --print-architecture to get
       architecture information during a package build.

ENVIRONMENT
       DPKG_DATADIR
              If set, it will be used as the dpkg data  directory,  where  the
              architecture  tables are located (since dpkg 1.14.17).  Defaults
              to <</usr/share/dpkg>>.

NOTES
       All long command and option names available only since dpkg 1.17.17.

SEE ALSO
       dpkg-buildpackage(1), dpkg-cross(1).

1.18.24                           2017-05-17              dpkg-architecture(1)

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