dpkg-buildpackage(1)



dpkg-buildpackage(1)              dpkg suite              dpkg-buildpackage(1)

NAME
       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

SYNOPSIS
       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

DESCRIPTION
       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a
       Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment  by  setting  various  environment
          variables   (see   ENVIRONMENT),  runs  the  init  hook,  and  calls
          dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has been used).

       2. It  checks  that  the  build-dependencies  and  build-conflicts  are
          satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).

       3. If  one  or  more specific targets have been selected with the -T or
          --target option, it calls those targets and stops here. Otherwise it
          runs  the  preclean  hook  and  calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to
          clean the build-tree (unless -nc or --no-pre-clean is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source  -b  to  generate  the
          source package (if a source build has been requested with --build or
          equivalent options).

       5. It runs the build hook and  calls  debian/rules  build-target,  then
          runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules binary-target
          (unless a source-only build has been requested  with  --build=source
          or  equivalent  options).   Note that build-target and binary-target
          are either build and binary (default case, or  if  an  any  and  all
          build  has  been  requested  with --build or equivalent options), or
          build-arch and binary-arch (if an any and not  all  build  has  been
          requested  with  --build  or equivalent options), or build-indep and
          binary-indep (if an all and not any build has  been  requested  with
          --build or equivalent options).

       6. It runs the buildinfo hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo to generate a
          .buildinfo file.  Several dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to
          dpkg-genbuildinfo.

       7. It  runs  the  changes  hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a
          .changes file.  The name of the .changes file  will  depend  on  the
          type of build and will be as specific as necessary but not more; for
          a build that includes  any  the  name  will  be  source-name_binary-
          version_arch.changes, or otherwise for a build that includes all the
          name will be  source-name_binary-version_all.changes,  or  otherwise
          for   a  build  that  includes  source  the  name  will  be  source-
          name_source-version_source.changes.  Many dpkg-buildpackage  options
          are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It  runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean is specified,
          it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.

       9. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

       10.
          It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the  .changes
          file  (if  a  command  is  specified  in  DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  or with
          --check-command).

       11.
          It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it is not an
          UNRELEASED  build,  or --no-sign is specified) to sign the .dsc file
          (if  any,  unless  -us  or  --unsigned-source  is  specified),   the
          .buildinfo   file   (unless   -ui,   --unsigned-buildinfo,   -uc  or
          --unsigned-changes is specified) and the .changes file  (unless  -uc
          or --unsigned-changes is specified).

       12.
          It runs the done hook.

OPTIONS
       All  long  options can be specified both on the command line and in the
       dpkg-buildpackage system and user configuration files.   Each  line  in
       the  configuration  file  is  either an option (exactly the same as the
       command line option but without leading hyphens) or a  comment  (if  it
       starts with a '#').

       --build=type
              Specifies   the  build  type  from  a  comma-separated  list  of
              components (since dpkg 1.18.5).  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

              The allowed values are:

              source Builds the source package.  Note: when using  this  value
                     standalone  and  if what you want is simply to (re-)build
                     the source  package  from  a  clean  source  tree,  using
                     dpkg-source directly is always a better option as it does
                     not require any build dependencies to be installed  which
                     are otherwise needed to be able to call the clean target.

              any    Builds the architecture specific binary packages.

              all    Builds the architecture independent binary packages.

              binary Builds  the  architecture specific and independent binary
                     packages.  This is an alias for any,all.

              full   Builds everything.  This is an alias for  source,any,all,
                     and  the same as the default case when no build option is
                     specified.

       -g     Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -G     Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -b     Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.

       -B     Equivalent to --build=any.

       -A     Equivalent to --build=all.

       -S     Equivalent to --build=source.

       -F     Equivalent    to    --build=full,    --build=source,binary    or
              --build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).

       --target=target[,...]
       --target target[,...]
       -T, --rules-target=target[,...]
              Calls  debian/rules  target  once  per  target  specified, after
              having  setup  the  build  environment   (except   for   calling
              dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build process
              here (since dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg  1.18.8,  multi-
              target support since dpkg 1.18.16).  If --as-root is also given,
              then the command is executed as root (see --root-command).  Note
              that  known  targets  that are required to be run as root do not
              need this  option  (i.e.  the  clean,  binary,  binary-arch  and
              binary-indep targets).

       --as-root
              Only  meaningful  together  with  --target  (since dpkg 1.15.0).
              Requires that the target be run with root rights.

       -si
       -sa
       -sd
       -vversion
       -Cchanges-description
       -m, --release-by=maintainer-address
       -e, --build-by=maintainer-address
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture we build for (long option  since
              dpkg  1.17.17).   The architecture of the machine we build on is
              determined automatically, and is also the default for  the  host
              machine.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option since dpkg
              1.17.17).  It can be used  in  place  of  --host-arch  or  as  a
              complement  to  override the default GNU system type of the host
              Debian architecture.

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture the binaries  built  will  build
              for  (since  dpkg  1.17.17).   The  default  value  is  the host
              machine.

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type the binaries built  will  build  for
              (since  dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of --target-arch
              or as a complement to override the default GNU  system  type  of
              the target Debian architecture.

       -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
              Specify  the  profile(s)  we  build,  as  a comma-separated list
              (since dpkg 1.17.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  The default
              behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as
              a space separated list) as  the  DEB_BUILD_PROFILES  environment
              variable  which  allows,  for example, debian/rules files to use
              this information for conditional builds.

       -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
              Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of  jobs
              matching  the  number  of online processors if auto is specified
              (since dpkg  1.17.10),  or  unlimited  number  if  jobs  is  not
              specified,  equivalent  to  the  make(1) option of the same name
              (since dpkg 1.14.7, long option since dpkg  1.18.8).   Will  add
              itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should cause
              all subsequent make invocations  to  inherit  the  option,  thus
              forcing  the parallel setting on the packaging (and possibly the
              upstream build system if that uses  make)  regardless  of  their
              support  for  parallel builds, which might cause build failures.
              Also adds parallel=jobs or  parallel  to  the  DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment variable which allows debian/rules files to use this
              information for their own purposes.  The -j value will  override
              the  parallel=jobs  or  parallel option in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment  variable.   Note  that  the  auto  value  will  get
              replaced  by  the  actual number of currently active processors,
              and as such will not get propagated to any child process. If the
              number  of  online  processors  cannot be inferred then the code
              will fallback to using serial execution  (since  dpkg  1.18.15),
              although  this  should  only  happen  on  exotic and unsupported
              systems.

       -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
              This option (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since  dpkg  1.18.8)
              is  equivalent  to the -j option except that it does not set the
              MAKEFLAGS environment variable, and as such it is safer  to  use
              with  any  package  including  those that are not parallel-build
              safe.

              auto is the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11).  Setting  the
              number of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.

       -D, --check-builddeps
              Check  build  dependencies  and  conflicts; abort if unsatisfied
              (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  This is the default behavior.

       -d, --no-check-builddeps
              Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

       --ignore-builtin-builddeps
              Do  not  check  built-in build dependencies and conflicts (since
              dpkg 1.18.2).  These  are  the  distribution  specific  implicit
              build  dependencies usually required in a build environment, the
              so called Build-Essential package set.

       --rules-requires-root
              Do not honor the Rules-Requires-Root field, falling back to  its
              legacy default value (since dpkg 1.19.1).

       -nc, --no-pre-clean
              Do  not clean the source tree before building (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).  Implies -b if  nothing  else  has  been  selected
              among  -F, -g, -G, -B, -A or -S.  Implies -d with -S (since dpkg
              1.18.0).

       --pre-clean
              Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).  This
              is the default behavior.

       -tc, --post-clean
              Clean  the  source  tree  (using  gain-root-command debian/rules
              clean) after the package has been built (long option since  dpkg
              1.18.8).

       --no-post-clean
              Do  not  clean  the source tree after the package has been built
              (since dpkg 1.19.1).  This is the default behavior.

       -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute  part  of  the  build
              process  as root, it prefixes the command it executes with gain-
              root-command if one has been specified (long option  since  dpkg
              1.18.8).   Otherwise,  if none has been specified, fakeroot will
              be used by default,  if  the  command  is  present.   gain-root-
              command  should start with the name of a program on the PATH and
              will get as arguments the name of the real command  to  run  and
              the  arguments  it  should  take.  gain-root-command can include
              parameters  (they  must  be  space-separated)   but   no   shell
              metacharacters.   gain-root-command might typically be fakeroot,
              sudo, super or really.  su is not suitable, since  it  can  only
              invoke  the  user's  shell  with -c instead of passing arguments
              individually to the command to be run.

       -R, --rules-file=rules-file
              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules
              as  a  command  with  several  standard  parameters  (since dpkg
              1.14.17, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  With this option  it's
              possible  to use another program invocation to build the package
              (it can include space separated parameters).   Alternatively  it
              can be used to execute the standard rules file with another make
              program   (for   example   by   using   /usr/local/bin/make   -f
              debian/rules as rules-file).

       --check-command=check-command
              Command  used to check the .changes file itself and any artifact
              built referenced in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).   The  command
              should  take  the .changes pathname as an argument. This command
              will usually be lintian.

       --check-option=opt
              Pass  option   opt   to   the   check-command   specified   with
              DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  or  --check-command (since dpkg 1.17.6).  Can
              be used multiple times.

       --hook-hook-name=hook-command
              Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-name,
              which  will  run  at the times specified in the run steps (since
              dpkg 1.17.6).  The hooks will always be  executed  even  if  the
              following  action is not performed (except for the binary hook).
              All the hooks will run in the unpacked source directory.

              Note: Hooks can  affect  the  build  process,  and  cause  build
              failures  if  their  commands  fail, so watch out for unintended
              consequences.

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init preclean source build binary  buildinfo  changes  postclean
              check sign done

              The  hook-command  supports  the  following  substitution format
              string, which will get applied to it before execution:

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A boolean  value  (0  or  1),  representing  whether  the
                     following action is being performed.

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

       --buildinfo-option=opt
              Pass  option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).  Can
              be used multiple times.

       -p, --sign-command=sign-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG  to  sign  a  source
              control  (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run sign-command
              (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of gpg2 or  gpg  (long
              option  since  dpkg  1.18.8).   sign-command  will  get  all the
              arguments that gpg2  or  gpg  would  have  gotten.  sign-command
              should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.

       -k, --sign-key=key-id
              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

       -us, --unsigned-source
              Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
              Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).

       -uc, --unsigned-changes
              Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

       --no-sign
              Do  not  sign  any  file,  this includes the source package, the
              .buildinfo file and the .changes file (since dpkg 1.18.20).

       --force-sign
              Force the signing of the resulting files  (since  dpkg  1.17.0),
              regardless of -us, --unsigned-source, -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo,
              -uc, --unsigned-changes or other internal heuristics.

       -sn
       -ss
       -sA
       -sk
       -su
       -sr
       -sK
       -sU
       -sR
       -i, --diff-ignore[=regex]
       -I, --tar-ignore[=pattern]
       -z, --compression-level=level
       -Z, --compression=compressor
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

       --source-option=opt
              Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be used
              multiple times.

       --changes-option=opt
              Pass  option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be
              used multiple times.

       --admindir=dir
       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database  (since  dpkg  1.14.0).
              The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

       --version
              Show the version and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
   External environment
       DEB_CHECK_COMMAND
              If  set,  it  will  be used as the command to check the .changes
              file (since dpkg 1.17.6).   Overridden  by  the  --check-command
              option.

       DEB_SIGN_KEYID
              If  set,  it  will  be  used to sign the .changes and .dsc files
              (since dpkg 1.17.2).  Overridden by the --sign-key option.

       DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              If set, it will contain a space-separated list of  options  that
              might affect the build process in debian/rules, and the behavior
              of some dpkg commands.

              With nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  variable  will  be  ignored.
              With  parallel=N  the parallel jobs will be set to N, overridden
              by the --jobs-try option.

       DEB_BUILD_PROFILES
              If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s)  for  the
              package  being  built  (since  dpkg  1.17.2).   It  is  a  space
              separated list of profile names.  Overridden by the -P option.

       DPKG_COLORS
              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently accepted
              values are: auto (default), always and never.

       DPKG_NLS
              If  set,  it  will  be used to decide whether to activate Native
              Language Support, also known as internationalization  (or  i18n)
              support  (since  dpkg 1.19.0).  The accepted values are: 0 and 1
              (default).

   Internal environment
       Even if dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables,  debian/rules  should
       not  rely  on  their  presence  and  should  instead use the respective
       interface to retrieve the needed values, because that file is the  main
       entry  point  to  build  packages  and  running it standalone should be
       supported.

       DEB_BUILD_*
       DEB_HOST_*
       DEB_TARGET_*
              dpkg-architecture is  called  with  the  -a  and  -t  parameters
              forwarded.  Any  variable  that  is  output  by its -s option is
              integrated in the build environment.

       DEB_RULES_REQUIRES_ROOT
              This  variable  is  set  to  the   value   obtained   from   the
              Rules-Requires-Root  field  or from the command-line.  When set,
              it will be a valid value for the Rules-Requires-Root field.   It
              is  used  to notify debian/rules whether the rootless-builds.txt
              specification is supported.

       DEB_GAIN_ROOT_CMD
              This  variable  is  set  to  gain-root-command  when  the  field
              Rules-Requires-Root  is  set  to  a  value  different  to no and
              binary-targets.

       SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH
              This variable is set to the Unix timestamp since  the  epoch  of
              the  latest  entry  in  debian/changelog,  if  it is not already
              defined.

FILES
       /etc/dpkg/buildpackage.conf
              System wide configuration file

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
       $HOME/.config/dpkg/buildpackage.conf
              User configuration file.

NOTES
   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1,  dpkg-buildpackage  exported  compiler
       flags  (CFLAGS,  CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with values as
       returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since
       dpkg  1.16.2.  Those targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid breakages
       of existing packages, and ease the transition, if  the  source  package
       does  not  build  both  architecture  independent  and dependent binary
       packages (since dpkg 1.18.8) it will fallback to use the  build  target
       if make -f debian/rules -qn build-target returns 2 as exit code.

BUGS
       It  should  be  possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters and
       initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.

SEE ALSO
       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genbuildinfo(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), lintian(1),
       gpg2(1), gpg(1).

1.19.2                            2018-10-08              dpkg-buildpackage(1)

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