dpkg-buildpackage(1)              dpkg suite              dpkg-buildpackage(1)

       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a
       Debian package. It consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment  by  setting  various  environment
          variables   (see   ENVIRONMENT),  runs  the  init  hook,  and  calls
          dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has been used).

       2. It  checks  that  the  build-dependencies  and  build-conflicts  are
          satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).

       3. If  one  or  more specific targets have been selected with the -T or
          --target option, it calls those targets and stops here. Otherwise it
          runs  the  preclean  hook  and  calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to
          clean the build-tree (unless -nc or --no-pre-clean is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source  -b  to  generate  the
          source package (if a source build has been requested with --build or
          equivalent options).

       5. It runs the build hook and  calls  debian/rules  build-target,  then
          runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules binary-target
          (unless a source-only build has been requested  with  --build=source
          or  equivalent  options).   Note that build-target and binary-target
          are either build and binary (default case, or  if  an  any  and  all
          build  has  been  requested  with --build or equivalent options), or
          build-arch and binary-arch (if an any and not  all  build  has  been
          requested  with  --build  or equivalent options), or build-indep and
          binary-indep (if an all and not any build has  been  requested  with
          --build or equivalent options).

       6. Unless a source-only build has been requested, it runs the buildinfo
          hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo  to  generate  a  .buildinfo  file.
          Several     dpkg-buildpackage     options     are    forwarded    to

       7. It runs the changes hook and calls  dpkg-genchanges  to  generate  a
          .changes  file.   The  name  of the .changes file will depend on the
          type of build and will be as specific as necessary but not more; for
          a  build  that  includes  any  the  name will be source-name_source-
          version_arch.changes, or otherwise for a build that includes all the
          name  will  be  source-name_source-version_all.changes, or otherwise
          for  a  build  that  includes  source  the  name  will  be   source-
          name_source-version_source.changes.   Many dpkg-buildpackage options
          are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       8. It runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean is  specified,
          it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.

       9. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

          It  runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the .changes
          file (if  a  command  is  specified  in  DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  or  with

          It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it is not an
          UNRELEASED build, or --no-sign is specified) to sign the  .dsc  file
          (if   any,  unless  -us  or  --unsigned-source  is  specified),  the
          .buildinfo  file   (unless   -ui,   --unsigned-buildinfo,   -uc   or
          --unsigned-changes  is  specified) and the .changes file (unless -uc
          or --unsigned-changes is specified).

          It runs the done hook.

       All long options can be specified both on the command line and  in  the
       dpkg-buildpackage  system  and  user configuration files.  Each line in
       the configuration file is either an option (exactly  the  same  as  the
       command  line  option  but without leading hyphens) or a comment (if it
       starts with a '#').

              Specifies  the  build  type  from  a  comma-separated  list   of
              components (since dpkg 1.18.5).  Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

              The allowed values are:

              source Builds  the  source package.  Note: when using this value
                     standalone and if what you want is simply  to  (re-)build
                     the source package, using dpkg-source is always better as
                     it  does  not  require  any  build  dependencies  to   be
                     installed to be able to call the clean target.

              any    Builds the architecture specific binary packages.

              all    Builds the architecture independent binary packages.

              binary Builds  the  architecture specific and independent binary
                     packages.  This is an alias for any,all.

              full   Builds everything.  This is an alias for  source,any,all,
                     and  the same as the default case when no build option is

       -g     Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -G     Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       -b     Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.

       -B     Equivalent to --build=any.

       -A     Equivalent to --build=all.

       -S     Equivalent to --build=source.

       -F     Equivalent    to    --build=full,    --build=source,binary    or
              --build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).

       --target target[,...]
       -T, --rules-target=target[,...]
              Calls  debian/rules  target  once  per  target  specified, after
              having  setup  the  build  environment   (except   for   calling
              dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build process
              here (since dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg  1.18.8,  multi-
              target support since dpkg 1.18.16).  If --as-root is also given,
              then the command is executed as root (see --root-command).  Note
              that  known  targets  that are required to be run as root do not
              need this  option  (i.e.  the  clean,  binary,  binary-arch  and
              binary-indep targets).

              Only  meaningful  together  with  --target  (since dpkg 1.15.0).
              Requires that the target be run with root rights.

       -m, --release-by=maintainer-address
       -e, --build-by=maintainer-address
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture we build for (long option  since
              dpkg  1.17.17).   The architecture of the machine we build on is
              determined automatically, and is also the default for  the  host

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option since dpkg
              1.17.17).  It can be used  in  place  of  --host-arch  or  as  a
              complement  to  override the default GNU system type of the host
              Debian architecture.

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture the binaries  built  will  build
              for  (since  dpkg  1.17.17).   The  default  value  is  the host

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type the binaries built  will  build  for
              (since  dpkg 1.17.17).  It can be used in place of --target-arch
              or as a complement to override the default GNU  system  type  of
              the target Debian architecture.

       -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
              Specify  the  profile(s)  we  build,  as  a comma-separated list
              (since dpkg 1.17.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  The default
              behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as
              a space separated list) as  the  DEB_BUILD_PROFILES  environment
              variable  which  allows,  for example, debian/rules files to use
              this information for conditional builds.

       -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
              Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of  jobs
              matching  the  number  of online processors if auto is specified
              (since dpkg  1.17.10),  or  unlimited  number  if  jobs  is  not
              specified,  equivalent  to  the  make(1) option of the same name
              (since dpkg 1.14.7, long option since dpkg  1.18.8).   Will  add
              itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should cause
              all subsequent make invocations  to  inherit  the  option,  thus
              forcing  the parallel setting on the packaging (and possibly the
              upstream build system if that uses  make)  regardless  of  their
              support  for  parallel builds, which might cause build failures.
              Also adds parallel=jobs or  parallel  to  the  DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment variable which allows debian/rules files to use this
              information for their own purposes.  The -j value will  override
              the  parallel=jobs  or  parallel option in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS
              environment  variable.   Note  that  the  auto  value  will  get
              replaced  by  the  actual number of currently active processors,
              and as such will not get propagated to any child process. If the
              number  of  online  processors  cannot be inferred then the code
              will fallback to using serial execution  (since  dpkg  1.18.15),
              although  this  should  only  happen  on  exotic and unsupported

       -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
              This option (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since  dpkg  1.18.8)
              is  equivalent  to the -j option except that it does not set the
              MAKEFLAGS environment variable, and as such it is safer  to  use
              with  any  package  including  those that are not parallel-build

              auto is the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11).  Setting  the
              number of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.

       -D, --check-builddeps
              Check  build  dependencies  and  conflicts; abort if unsatisfied
              (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  This is the default behavior.

       -d, --no-check-builddeps
              Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do  not  check  built-in build dependencies and conflicts (since
              dpkg 1.18.2).  These  are  the  distribution  specific  implicit
              build  dependencies usually required in a build environment, the
              so called Build-Essential package set.

       -nc, --no-pre-clean
              Do not clean the source tree (long option  since  dpkg  1.18.8).
              Implies  -b  if nothing else has been selected among -F, -g, -G,
              -B, -A or -S.  Implies -d with -S (since dpkg 1.18.0).

              Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -tc, --post-clean
              Clean the  source  tree  (using  gain-root-command  debian/rules
              clean)  after the package has been built (long option since dpkg

       -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage  needs  to  execute  part  of  the  build
              process  as root, it prefixes the command it executes with gain-
              root-command if one has been specified (long option  since  dpkg
              1.18.8).   Otherwise,  if none has been specified, fakeroot will
              be used by default,  if  the  command  is  present.   gain-root-
              command  should start with the name of a program on the PATH and
              will get as arguments the name of the real command  to  run  and
              the  arguments  it  should  take.  gain-root-command can include
              parameters  (they  must  be  space-separated)   but   no   shell
              metacharacters.   gain-root-command might typically be fakeroot,
              sudo, super or really.  su is not suitable, since  it  can  only
              invoke  the  user's  shell  with -c instead of passing arguments
              individually to the command to be run.

       -R, --rules-file=rules-file
              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules
              as  a  command  with  several  standard  parameters  (since dpkg
              1.14.17, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).  With this option  it's
              possible  to use another program invocation to build the package
              (it can include space separated parameters).   Alternatively  it
              can be used to execute the standard rules file with another make
              program   (for   example   by   using   /usr/local/bin/make   -f
              debian/rules as rules-file).

              Command  used to check the .changes file itself and any artifact
              built referenced in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).   The  command
              should  take  the .changes pathname as an argument. This command
              will usually be lintian.

              Pass  option   opt   to   the   check-command   specified   with
              DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  or  --check-command (since dpkg 1.17.6).  Can
              be used multiple times.

              Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-name,
              which  will  run  at the times specified in the run steps (since
              dpkg 1.17.6).  The hooks will always be  executed  even  if  the
              following  action is not performed (except for the binary hook).
              All the hooks will run in the unpacked source directory.

              Note: Hooks can  affect  the  build  process,  and  cause  build
              failures  if  their  commands  fail, so watch out for unintended

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init preclean source build binary changes postclean  check  sign

              The  hook-command  supports  the  following  substitution format
              string, which will get applied to it before execution:

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A boolean  value  (0  or  1),  representing  whether  the
                     following action is being performed.

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

              Pass  option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).  Can
              be used multiple times.

       -p, --sign-command=sign-command
              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG  to  sign  a  source
              control  (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run sign-command
              (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of gpg2 or  gpg  (long
              option  since  dpkg  1.18.8).   sign-command  will  get  all the
              arguments that gpg2  or  gpg  would  have  gotten.  sign-command
              should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.

       -k, --sign-key=key-id
              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

       -us, --unsigned-source
              Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).

       -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
              Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).

       -uc, --unsigned-changes
              Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files (long option since
              dpkg 1.18.8).

              Do  not  sign  any  file,  this includes the source package, the
              .buildinfo file and the .changes file (since dpkg 1.18.20).

              Force the signing of the resulting files  (since  dpkg  1.17.0),
              regardless of -us, --unsigned-source, -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo,
              -uc, --unsigned-changes or other internal heuristics.

       -i, --diff-ignore[=regex]
       -I, --tar-ignore[=pattern]
       -z, --compression-level=level
       -Z, --compression=compressor
              Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be used
              multiple times.

              Pass  option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Can be
              used multiple times.

       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database  (since  dpkg  1.14.0).
              The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

   External environment
              If  set,  it  will  be used as the command to check the .changes
              file (since dpkg 1.17.6).   Overridden  by  the  --check-command

              If  set,  it  will  be  used to sign the .changes and .dsc files
              (since dpkg 1.17.2).  Overridden by the --sign-key option.

              If set, it will contain a space-separated list of  options  that
              might affect the build process in debian/rules, and the behavior
              of some dpkg commands.

              With nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND  variable  will  be  ignored.
              With  parallel=N  the parallel jobs will be set to N, overridden
              by the --jobs-try option.

              If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s)  for  the
              package  being  built  (since  dpkg  1.17.2).   It  is  a  space
              separated list of profile names.  Overridden by the -P option.

              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently accepted
              values are: auto (default), always and never.

   Internal environment
       Even  if  dpkg-buildpackage exports some variables, debian/rules should
       not rely on their  presence  and  should  instead  use  the  respective
       interface  to retrieve the needed values, because that file is the main
       entry point to build packages  and  running  it  standalone  should  be

              dpkg-architecture  is  called  with  the  -a  and  -t parameters
              forwarded. Any variable that is  output  by  its  -s  option  is
              integrated in the build environment.

              This  variable  is  set to the Unix timestamp since the epoch of
              the latest entry in  debian/changelog,  if  it  is  not  already

              System wide configuration file

       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
              User configuration file.

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between  dpkg  1.14.17  and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage exported compiler
       flags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with  values  as
       returned by dpkg-buildflags. This is no longer the case.

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since
       dpkg 1.16.2. Those targets are thus mandatory. But to  avoid  breakages
       of  existing  packages,  and ease the transition, if the source package
       does not build  both  architecture  independent  and  dependent  binary
       packages  (since  dpkg 1.18.8) it will fallback to use the build target
       if make -f debian/rules -qn build-target returns 2 as exit code.

       It should be possible to specify spaces and  shell  metacharacters  and
       initial arguments for gain-root-command and sign-command.

       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1),
       dpkg-genbuildinfo(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), lintian(1),
       gpg2(1), gpg(1).

1.18.24                           2017-05-17              dpkg-buildpackage(1)

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