find(1)



FIND(1)                     General Commands Manual                    FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find  [-H]  [-L]  [-P]  [-D  debugopts]  [-Olevel]  [starting-point...]
       [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find  searches
       the  directory  tree  rooted at each given starting-point by evaluating
       the given expression from left to right,  according  to  the  rules  of
       precedence  (see  section  OPERATORS),  until the outcome is known (the
       left hand side is false for and operations,  true  for  or),  at  which
       point  find  moves  on  to the next file name.  If no starting-point is
       specified, `.' is assumed.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable by other users), you should read the `Security Considerations'
       chapter  of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That document  also  includes  a  lot  more
       detail  and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more
       useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic  links.
       Command-line  arguments  following these are taken to be names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the  first  argument  that  begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is  to  be
       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately after the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path name, if  at  all.   A  double
       dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'  is  generally  safer if you use wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the information used shall be taken from the  prop-
              erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
              examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option,  -noleaf  will
              still  be  in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
              tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
              ken).  Actions that can cause symbolic links  to  become  broken
              while  find  is executing (for example -delete) can give rise to
              confusing behaviour.  Using -L causes  the  -lname  and  -ilname
              predicates always to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
              mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
              about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop-
              erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym-
              bolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For  that  situation,
              the  information  used is taken from whatever the link points to
              (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link
              itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym-
              bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
              the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
              directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be  examined
              (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the  default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugopts
              Print diagnostic information; this can be  helpful  to  diagnose
              problems  with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
              debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility  of  the
              debug  options  is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
              For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
              find -D help.  Valid debug options include

              exec   Show  diagnostic information relating to -exec, -execdir,
                     -ok and -okdir

              help   Explain the debugging options.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to  the  optimisa-
                     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate suc-
                     ceeded or failed.

              search Navigate the directory tree verbosely.

              stat   Print messages as files are examined with  the  stat  and
                     lstat  system  calls.  The find program tries to minimise
                     such calls.

              tree   Show the expression tree in its  original  and  optimised
                     form.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to
              speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
              predicates  with side effects are not reordered relative to each
              other.  The optimisations performed at each  optimisation  level
              are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
                     the traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered  so
                     that  tests based only on the names of files (for example
                     -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any -type or -xtype tests are performed after  any  tests
                     based  only  on  the names of files, but before any tests
                     that require information from the inode.  On many  modern
                     versions  of  Unix,  file types are returned by readdir()
                     and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than pred-
                     icates which need to stat the file first.  If you use the
                     -fstype FOO predicate and specify a filesystem  type  FOO
                     which  is  not known (that is, present in `/etc/mtab') at
                     the time find starts, that  predicate  is  equivalent  to
                     -false.

              3      At  this  optimisation  level,  the full cost-based query
                     optimiser is enabled.  The order of tests is modified  so
                     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
                     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
                     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
                     according to whether they are likely to succeed  or  not.
                     For -o, predicates which are likely to succeed are evalu-
                     ated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely  to
                     fail are evaluated earlier.

              The  cost-based  optimiser  has  a  fixed idea of how likely any
              given test is to succeed.  In some cases the  probability  takes
              account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f
              is assumed to be more likely to  succeed  than  -type  c).   The
              cost-based  optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it does
              not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
              again.   Conversely,  optimisations  that  prove to be reliable,
              robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
              over  time.   However,  the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation
              level 1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release  series.   The
              findutils  test suite runs all the tests on find at each optimi-
              sation level and ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSION
       The part of the command line after the list of starting points  is  the
       expression.   This  is  a kind of query specification describing how we
       match files and what we do  with  the  files  that  were  matched.   An
       expression is composed of a sequence of things:

       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some
              property of a file we are  considering.   The  -empty  test  for
              example is true only when the current file is empty.

       Actions
              Actions  have  side  effects  (such as printing something on the
              standard output) and return either true or false, usually  based
              on  whether  or  not they are successful.  The -print action for
              example prints the name of the current file on the standard out-
              put.

       Global options
              Global  options affect the operation of tests and actions speci-
              fied on any part of the command  line.   Global  options  always
              return  true.  The -depth option for example makes find traverse
              the file system in a depth-first order.

       Positional options
              Positional options affect only tests  or  actions  which  follow
              them.   Positional  options  always return true.  The -regextype
              option for example is positional, specifying the regular expres-
              sion dialect for regular expressions occurring later on the com-
              mand line.

       Operators
              Operators join together the other items within  the  expression.
              They include for example -o (meaning logical OR) and -a (meaning
              logical AND).  Where an operator is missing, -a is assumed.

       If the whole expression  contains  no  actions  other  than  -prune  or
       -print, -print is performed on all files for which the whole expression
       is true.

       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).

   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only  tests  occur-
       ring later on the command line.

       -daystart
              Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24  hours
              ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
              command line.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic
              links.   Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only those
              tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the  -H
              or  -L  option  has  been specified, the position of the -follow
              option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any  files
              listed  as  the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they
              are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
              -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
              and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
              -iregex  tests  which  occur  later on the command line.  To see
              which regular expression types are known, use  -regextype  help.
              The Texinfo documentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning of
              and differences between the various types of regular expression.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply  only  to
              the  command  line  usage, not to any conditions that find might
              encounter when it searches directories.  The  default  behaviour
              corresponds  to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
              otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-line  usage
              is  produced,  the  exit status of find is not affected.  If the
              POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set, and -warn  is  also
              used,  it  is  not  specified  which,  if  any, warnings will be
              active.

   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global options always return true.  Global options take effect even for
       tests  which  occur earlier on the command line.  To prevent confusion,
       global options should specified on the command-line after the  list  of
       start  points, just before the first test, positional option or action.
       If you specify a global option in some other place, find will  issue  a
       warning message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The global options occur after the list of start points, and so are not
       the same kind of option as -L, for example.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -depth Process  each  directory's contents before the directory itself.
              The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to  stat
              a  file.   If you give this option and a file is deleted between
              the time find reads the name of the file from the directory  and
              the  time  it  tries  to stat the file, no error message will be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are  given on the command line.  This option takes effect at the
              time the command line is  read,  which  means  that  you  cannot
              search  one  part of the filesystem with this option on and part
              of it with this option off (if you need to  do  that,  you  will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc-
              tories below the starting-points.  -maxdepth 0
               means  only  apply the tests and actions to the starting-points
              themselves.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a
              non-negative  integer).   -mindepth  1  means  process all files
              except the starting-points.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other  filesystems.   An  alternate
              name  for  -xdev,  for compatibility with some other versions of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that  directories  contain  2  fewer
              subdirectories  than  their  hard  link  count.   This option is
              needed when searching filesystems that do not  follow  the  Unix
              directory-link  convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory  on  a  normal  Unix
              filesystem  has  at  least  2  hard  links: its name and its `.'
              entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any)  each  have  a
              `..'  entry  linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than  the
              directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
              tree).   If  only the files' names need to be examined, there is
              no need to stat them;  this  gives  a  significant  increase  in
              search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
       between the file currently being examined and some reference file spec-
       ified  on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta-
       tion of the reference file is determined by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference  file  cannot
       be  examined  (for  example,  the stat(2) system call fails for it), an
       error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
              how  many  24-hour  periods  ago the file was last accessed, any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi-
              fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
              option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
              points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
              searchable  (in  a  file  name  resolution sense) by the current
              user.  This takes into account access control  lists  and  other
              permissions  artefacts  which the -perm test ignores.  This test
              makes use of the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled  by
              NFS servers which do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many
              systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot
              make  use  of  the  UID  mapping information held on the server.
              Because this test is based only on the result of  the  access(2)
              system  call,  there  is no guarantee that a file for which this
              test succeeds can actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of  type  type.   The  valid  filesystem
              types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
              use -printf with the %F directive  to  see  the  types  of  your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
              option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this  test  returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file  names  `Foo',  `FOO',
              `foo',  `fOo', etc.   The pattern `*foo*` will also match a file
              called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It  is  normally  easier  to  use  the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
              File has n hard links.

       -lname pattern
              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
              tern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If
              the  -L  option  or  the  -follow option is in effect, this test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading  directories
              removed)  matches  shell  pattern  pattern.  Because the leading
              directories are removed, the file names considered for  a  match
              with -name will never include a slash, so `-name a/b' will never
              match anything (you probably need  to  use  -path  instead).   A
              warning  is issued if you try to do this, unless the environment
              variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  The metacharacters (`*',  `?',
              and  `[]')  match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a
              change in findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS  CONFORMANCE
              below).   To  ignore  a  directory  and  the files under it, use
              -prune; see an example in the description of -path.  Braces  are
              not  recognised  as  being  special,  despite the fact that some
              shells including Bash imbue braces with  a  special  meaning  in
              shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed with the use
              of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't  forget  to  enclose
              the  pattern  in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by
              the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
              bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the
              modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds if timestamp X of the file being  considered  is  newer
              than  timestamp  Y  of the file reference.   The letters X and Y
              can be any of the following letters:

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for  X
              to  be t.  Some combinations are not implemented on all systems;
              for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
              unsupported  combination  of  XY  is  specified,  a  fatal error
              results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for  the  argu-
              ment  to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth
              time of a reference file, and the birth time  cannot  be  deter-
              mined,  a  fatal  error  message results.  If you specify a test
              which refers to the birth time of  files  being  examined,  this
              test will fail for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File  name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
              exists).   To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
              than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
              directory  `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
              and print the names of the other files found, do something  like
              this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
              starting from one of the start points named on the command line.
              It  would  only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
              the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This  means
              that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find  compares  the  -path  argument with the concatenation of a
              directory name and the base name of  the  file  it's  examining.
              Since the concatenation will never end with a slash, -path argu-
              ments ending in a slash will match  nothing  (except  perhaps  a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path
              is also supported by HP-UX find and is part of  the  POSIX  2008
              standard.

       -perm mode
              File's  permission  bits  are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Since an exact match is required, if you want to use  this  form
              for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a rather complex
              mode string.  For example `-perm  g=w'  will  only  match  files
              which  have  mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write per-
              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
              will want to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example `-perm -g=w',
              which matches any file with group  write  permission.   See  the
              EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way  in
              which  you would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or
              `o' if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES  section  for
              some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form.  You must specify `u',  `g'  or
              `o'  if  you  use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
              some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
              set,  this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consis-
              tent with the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              This is no longer  supported  (and  has  been  deprecated  since
              2005).  Use -perm /mode instead.

       -readable
              Matches  files  which  are  readable  by the current user.  This
              takes into account access control lists  and  other  permissions
              artefacts  which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by  NFS  servers
              which  do  UID  mapping  (or root-squashing), since many systems
              implement access(2) in the client's kernel and  so  cannot  make
              use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
              named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
              `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
              by  find  are  by default Emacs Regular Expressions (except that
              `.' matches newline), but this can be changed with  the  -regex-
              type option.

       -samefile name
              File  refers  to the same inode as name.   When -L is in effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space, rounding up.  The following suffixes
              can be used:

              `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
                     used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kibibytes (KiB, units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Mebibytes (MiB, units of 1024 * 1024 = 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for Gibibytes (GiB,  units  of  1024  *  1024  *  1024  =
                     1073741824 bytes)

              The  size  does  not  count  indirect  blocks, but it does count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind  that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf handle
              sparse  files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always   denotes
              512-byte  blocks  and never 1024-byte blocks, which is different
              to the behaviour of -ls.

              The + and - prefixes signify greater  than  and  less  than,  as
              usual;  i.e.,  an exact size of n units does not match.  Bear in
              mind that the size is rounded up to  the  next  unit.  Therefore
              -size -1M is not equivalent to -size -1048576c.  The former only
              matches  empty  files,  the  latter  matches  files  from  0  to
              1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

              To search for more than one type at once,  you  can  supply  the
              combined  list  of  type  letters  separated by a comma `,' (GNU
              extension).

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches files which are writable  by  the  current  user.   This
              takes  into  account  access control lists and other permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use  of
              the  access(2)  system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers
              which do UID mapping (or  root-squashing),  since  many  systems
              implement  access(2)  in  the client's kernel and so cannot make
              use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
              bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
              file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
              given,  true  if  c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file  matches  glob  pat-
              tern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit  sta-
              tus  will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of -delete
              automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line  is  evaluated
              as an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
              delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
              testing  a  find  command line that you later intend to use with
              -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to  avoid
              later  surprises.   Because  -delete  implies -depth, you cannot
              usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is  returned.   All  following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The  string  `{}'
              is  replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where  it  is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES sec-
              tion for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified
              command  is run once for each matched file.  The command is exe-
              cuted in the starting directory.   There are  unavoidable  secu-
              rity  problems  surrounding  use of the -exec action; you should
              use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified  command  on
              the  selected  files, but the command line is built by appending
              each selected file name at the end; the total number of  invoca-
              tions  of  the  command  will  be  much  less than the number of
              matched files.  The command line is built in much the  same  way
              that  xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}'
              is allowed within the command, and (when find is  being  invoked
              from a shell) it should be quoted (for example, '{}') to protect
              it from interpretation by shells.  The command  is  executed  in
              the  starting  directory.   If any invocation returns a non-zero
              value as exit status, then find returns a non-zero exit  status.
              If find encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an immedi-
              ate exit, so some pending commands may not be run at all.   This
              variant of -exec always returns true.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like  -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirec-
              tory containing the matched file,  which  is  not  normally  the
              directory  in  which  you  started  find.  As with -exec, the {}
              should be quoted if find is being invoked from a shell.  This  a
              much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race
              conditions during resolution of the paths to the matched  files.
              As  with the -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build a
              command line to process more than  one  matched  file,  but  any
              given  invocation  of command will only list files that exist in
              the same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must  ensure
              that  your  $PATH  environment  variable does not reference `.';
              otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
              an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
              -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are
              empty or which are not absolute directory names.  If any invoca-
              tion returns a non-zero value as exit status, then find  returns
              a  non-zero  exit status.  If find encounters an error, this can
              sometimes cause an immediate exit, so some pending commands  may
              not  be  run at all. The result of the action depends on whether
              the + or the ; variant is being  used;  -execdir  command  {}  +
              always  returns  true,  while -execdir command {} ; returns true
              only if command returns 0.

       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
              is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
              truncated.   The  file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are
              handled specially; they refer to the standard output  and  stan-
              dard error output, respectively.  The output file is always cre-
              ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL
              FILENAMES  section  for information about how unusual characters
              in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on  standard  output.
              The  block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari-
              able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
              used.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about
              how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run  the
              command.   Otherwise  just return false.  If the command is run,
              its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

              The response to the prompt is matched against a pair of  regular
              expressions  to  determine  if  it is an affirmative or negative
              response.  This regular expression is obtained from  the  system
              if  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or other-
              wise from find's message translations.  If  the  system  has  no
              suitable  definition,  find's  own definition will be used.   In
              either case, the interpretation of the regular expression itself
              will  be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE' (char-
              acter classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character  ranges  and  equiva-
              lence classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
              If the user does not agree, just return false.  If  the  command
              is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the  output  of  find  into
              another  program  and there is the faintest possibility that the
              files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
              you  should  seriously consider using the -print0 option instead
              of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -print0
              True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a null character  (instead  of  the  newline  character  that
              -print  uses).   This allows file names that contain newlines or
              other types of white space to be correctly interpreted  by  pro-
              grams  that process the find output.  This option corresponds to
              the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True; print format on  the  standard  output,  interpreting  `\'
              escapes  and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
              specified as with the `printf' C  function.   Please  note  that
              many  of  the  fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and this
              may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.   This  also
              means  that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-
              aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at  the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's  last  access time in the format returned by the C
                     `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the  format  specified  by  k,
                     which  is  either `@' or a directive for the C `strftime'
                     function.  The possible values for k  are  listed  below;
                     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
                     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with  frac-
                            tional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second  (00.00  ..  61.00).  There is a fractional
                            part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date and  time,  separated  by  `+',  for  example
                            `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
                            The time is given in the current  timezone  (which
                            may  be  affected  by  setting  the TZ environment
                            variable).  The seconds  field  includes  a  frac-
                            tional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S).  The seconds
                            field includes a fractional part.

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time  zone
                            is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's  full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
                            day..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable  length  (Janu-
                            ary..December)

                     c      locale's  date  and  time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
                            1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
                            so  to  preserve  compatibility  with that format,
                            there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as  first  day  of
                            week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week  number  of  year with Monday as first day of
                            week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The amount of disk space used for this file  in  512-byte
                     blocks.   Since  disk  space is allocated in multiples of
                     the filesystem block size this is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/512,  but  it  can  also  be  smaller if the file is a
                     sparse file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned  by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     starting-point.

              %D     The  device  number  on which the file exists (the st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's name with any leading  directories  removed  (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type  of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the  group  has
                     no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele-
                     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
                     in  the  current  directory)  the %h specifier expands to
                     `.'.

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024,  but  it  can  also  be smaller if the file is a
                     sparse file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file  is  not  a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File's  permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the
                     `traditional' numbers  which  most  Unix  implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will  see
                     a  difference between the actual value of the file's mode
                     and the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have  a
                     leading  zero  on this number, and to do this, you should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for  ls).   This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's  name  with  the  name of the starting-point under
                     which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's  sparseness.   This  is  calculated   as   (BLOCK-
                     SIZE*st_blocks  / st_size).  The exact value you will get
                     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen-
                     dent.   However,  normally  sparse files will have values
                     less than 1.0, and files which use  indirect  blocks  may
                     have  a value which is greater than 1.0.   The value used
                     for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent,  but  is  usually  512
                     bytes.    If  the file size is zero, the value printed is
                     undefined.  On systems which lack support for  st_blocks,
                     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's  last  modification time in the format returned by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified  by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
                     name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn't
                     happen)

              %Y     File's  type  (like  %y),  plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
                     N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A `%' character followed by any other  character  is  discarded,
              but  the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as fur-
              ther format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end  of
              the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
              following character.  In some locales, it  may  hide  your  door
              keys,  while  in  others  it  may remove the final page from the
              novel you are reading.

              The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but  the
              other  directives  do  not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and  n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the align-
              ment of a field from right-justified (which is the  default)  to
              left-justified.

              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend  into  it.   If
              -depth  is  given,  false;  no  effect.  Because -delete implies
              -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running,  but
              no  more  paths specified on the command line will be processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.   Any  command  lines  which  have  been built up with
              -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The  exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force precedence.  Since parentheses are special to  the  shell,
              you  will  normally need to quote them.  Many of the examples in
              this manual page use backslashes  for  this  purpose:  `\(...\)'
              instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if  expr  is false.  This character will also usually need
              protection from interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
              -a; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
              The  comma operator can be useful for searching for several dif-
              ferent types of thing, but traversing the  filesystem  hierarchy
              only  once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the various
              matched items into several different output files.

       Please note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests
       appearing  without an explicit operator between them) or explicitly has
       higher precedence than -o.  This means that find . -name afile -o -name
       bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
       under the control of other users.  This  includes  file  names,  sizes,
       modification  times  and  so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character  except  `\0'  and  `/'.   Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of  your  function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the  output
              is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
              and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
              (for  example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are printed
              using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
              -fls  these  are  the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
              printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is  printed  as-is.
              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
              are  not  under control of files' owners, and so are printed as-
              is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
              %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own-
              ers but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the  ter-
              minal,  and  so these are printed as-is.  The directives %f, %h,
              %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way  as  for  GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as
              the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to  decide  what
              format  to use for the output of find then it is normally better
              to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file  names
              can  contain white space and newline characters.  The setting of
              the `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to  determine  which
              characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
              If you are using find in a script or in a  situation  where  the
              matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For  closest  compliance  to  the  POSIX  standard,  you should set the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are speci-
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
              POSIX conformance of the system's fnmatch(3)  library  function.
              As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]'
              for example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC  inter-
              pretation  126  requires  this.   This is a change from previous
              versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l',  `p',  `f'  and
              `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
              OS provides these.  Furthermore, GNU find allows multiple  types
              to be specified at once in a comma-separated list.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation  of the response is according to the
              `yes' and `no' patterns selected by  setting  the  `LC_MESSAGES'
              environment  variable.   When  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
              variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of
              a  positive  (yes)  or negative (no) response.  See the system's
              documentation for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR  and
              NOEXPR.     When  `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the patterns are
              instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is  a  symbolic  link,  it  is
              always  dereferenced.  This is a change from previous behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.   If  the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not
              set, some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not  valid
              in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other primaries
              The  primaries  -atime,  -ctime,  -depth, -exec, -group, -links,
              -mtime, -nogroup, -nouser, -ok, -path,  -print,  -prune,  -size,
              -user and -xdev are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are  extensions
       beyond  the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is,  entering
              a  previously  visited directory that is an ancestor of the last
              file encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find  shall
              write  a  diagnostic  message to standard error and shall either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directo-
       ries  which  contain  entries  which are hard links to an ancestor will
       often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean  that  GNU
       find  will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which
       is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually  enter
       such  a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic mes-
       sage.  Although  this  behaviour  may  be  somewhat  confusing,  it  is
       unlikely  that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the leaf
       optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always  be  examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it
       is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be  used  to  create  filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a
       diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a  loop  of  symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will
       often mean that find knows that it  doesn't  need  to  call  stat()  or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is frequently not nec-
       essary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD  systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour
       of the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified  in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides  a default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat-
              tern matching to be used for the -name option.   GNU  find  uses
              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
              depends on the system library.    This variable also affects the
              interpretation  of  the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES'
              variable selects  the  actual  pattern  used  to  interpret  the
              response  to  -ok, the interpretation of any bracket expressions
              in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
              regular  expressions  and  also with the -name test, if the sys-
              tem's fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This  variable
              also  affects the interpretation of any character classes in the
              regular expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt
              issued  by  -ok.   The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also
              affect which characters are considered to  be  unprintable  when
              filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
              If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this  also
              determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
              by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
              alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the directories which are searched to find the executa-
              bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_COR-
              RECT  is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are
              units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that  is,
              implies  -nowarn)  by default, because POSIX requires that apart
              from the output for -ok, all  messages  printed  on  stderr  are
              diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
              -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is  not  a  valid  symbolic  mode.   When
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by
              the -ok action is interpreted according to the system's  message
              catalogue,  as opposed to according to find's own message trans-
              lations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related  format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or  directory  names  con-
       taining  single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly han-
       dled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to  avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on  every file in or below the current directory.  Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly
       protected by the use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is  less  than  24  hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.   Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their  owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example  the  executable  bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner  or  their  group.  The files don't have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same  thing;  search  for  files  which  are
       writable by both their owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 \! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w \! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for every-
       body ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one  write  bit  set  (
       -perm  /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm
       /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name '*~' -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or directories whose name ends in ~,  but  not  their  con-
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to  be  pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the
       following -o ensures that the right hand side  is  evaluated  only  for
       those  directories  which didn't get pruned (the contents of the pruned
       directories are not even visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't  have  -prune  applied  to them.  Because the
       default `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o,  this
       is  the  default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going
       on.

       find repo/ \( -exec test -d '{}'/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \) \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of  projects  and  their  associated  SCM
       administrative   directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for  the
       projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent  into  directories
       that  have  already  been  discovered  (for  example  we  do not search
       project3/src because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures  sib-
       ling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

       find /tmp -type f,d,l

       Search for files, directories, and symbolic links in the directory /tmp
       passing these types as a comma-separated list (GNU extension), which is
       otherwise equivalent to the longer, yet more portable:

       find /tmp \( -type f -o -type d -o -type l \)

EXIT STATUS
       find  exits  with  status  0  if  all files are processed successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors occur.   This is  deliberately  a  very  broad
       description,  but  if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

       When some error occurs, find may stop immediately,  without  completing
       all  the  actions specified.  For example, some starting points may not
       have been examined or some pending program invocations for -exec ... {}
       + or -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3)

       The full documentation for find is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  find  programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command info find should give you access to the complete manual.

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for exam-
       ple)  used  in filename patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now  matches  all  files  instead  of
       none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero value when it fails.  However, find will not exit  immediately.
       Previously,  find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure of
       -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0

       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The syntax -perm +MODE was removed in findutils-4.5.12,  in  favour  of
       -perm  /MODE.   The  +MODE  syntax  had  been  deprecated  since findu-
       tils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
   Operator precedence surprises
       The command find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will  never  print
       afile  because  this is actually equivalent to find . -name afile -o \(
       -name bfile -a -print \).  Remember that the precedence of -a is higher
       than  that of -o and when there is no operator specified between tests,
       -a is assumed.

   "paths must precede expression" error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       find: possible unquoted pattern after predicate `-name'?

       This happens when the shell could expand the pattern *.c to  more  than
       one  file  name  existing  in  the  current  directory, and passing the
       resulting file names in the command line to find like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work, because the  -name  predi-
       cate  allows  exactly  only  one pattern as argument.  Instead of doing
       things this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the
       wildcard,  thus allowing find to use the pattern with the wildcard dur-
       ing the search for file name matching instead of file names expanded by
       the parent shell:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1990-2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:
       GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX
       standard specifies for find, which  therefore  cannot  be  fixed.   For
       example,  the  -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The best way to report a bug is  to  use  the  form  at  https://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason  for  this is that you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in general can be
       sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list,  send  email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                       FIND(1)

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