find(1)



FIND(1)                     General Commands Manual                    FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find  [-H]  [-L]  [-P]  [-D  debugopts]  [-Olevel]  [starting-point...]
       [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find  searches
       the  directory  tree  rooted at each given starting-point by evaluating
       the given expression from left to right,  according  to  the  rules  of
       precedence  (see  section  OPERATORS),  until the outcome is known (the
       left hand side is false for and operations,  true  for  or),  at  which
       point  find  moves  on  to the next file name.  If no starting-point is
       specified, `.' is assumed.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable by other users), you should read the `Security Considerations'
       chapter  of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That document  also  includes  a  lot  more
       detail  and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more
       useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic  links.
       Command-line  arguments  following these are taken to be names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the  first  argument  that  begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is  to  be
       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately after the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path name, if  at  all.   A  double
       dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'  is  generally  safer if you use wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the information used shall be taken from the  prop-
              erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
              examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option,  -noleaf  will
              still  be  in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
              tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
              ken).  Actions that can cause symbolic links  to  become  broken
              while  find  is executing (for example -delete) can give rise to
              confusing behaviour.  Using -L causes  the  -lname  and  -ilname
              predicates always to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
              mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
              about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop-
              erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym-
              bolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For  that  situation,
              the  information  used is taken from whatever the link points to
              (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link
              itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym-
              bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
              the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
              directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be  examined
              (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the  default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugopts
              Print diagnostic information; this can be  helpful  to  diagnose
              problems  with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
              debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility  of  the
              debug  options  is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
              For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
              find -D help.  Valid debug options include

              exec   Show  diagnostic information relating to -exec, -execdir,
                     -ok and -okdir

              help   Explain the debugging options.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to  the  optimisa-
                     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate suc-
                     ceeded or failed.

              search Navigate the directory tree verbosely.

              stat   Print messages as files are examined with  the  stat  and
                     lstat  system  calls.  The find program tries to minimise
                     such calls.

              tree   Show the expression tree in its  original  and  optimised
                     form.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to
              speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
              predicates  with side effects are not reordered relative to each
              other.  The optimisations performed at each  optimisation  level
              are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
                     the traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered  so
                     that  tests based only on the names of files (for example
                     -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any -type or -xtype tests are performed after  any  tests
                     based  only  on  the names of files, but before any tests
                     that require information from the inode.  On many  modern
                     versions  of  Unix,  file types are returned by readdir()
                     and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than pred-
                     icates which need to stat the file first.  If you use the
                     -fstype FOO predicate and specify a filesystem  type  FOO
                     which  is  not known (that is, present in `/etc/mtab') at
                     the time find starts, that  predicate  is  equivalent  to
                     -false.

              3      At  this  optimisation  level,  the full cost-based query
                     optimiser is enabled.  The order of tests is modified  so
                     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
                     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
                     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
                     according to whether they are likely to succeed  or  not.
                     For -o, predicates which are likely to succeed are evalu-
                     ated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely  to
                     fail are evaluated earlier.

              The  cost-based  optimiser  has  a  fixed idea of how likely any
              given test is to succeed.  In some cases the  probability  takes
              account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f
              is assumed to be more likely to  succeed  than  -type  c).   The
              cost-based  optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it does
              not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
              again.   Conversely,  optimisations  that  prove to be reliable,
              robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
              over  time.   However,  the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation
              level 1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release  series.   The
              findutils  test suite runs all the tests on find at each optimi-
              sation level and ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSION
       The part of the command line after the list of starting points  is  the
       expression.   This  is  a kind of query specification describing how we
       match files and what we do  with  the  files  that  were  matched.   An
       expression is composed of a sequence of things:

       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some
              property of a file we are  considering.   The  -empty  test  for
              example is true only when the current file is empty.

       Actions
              Actions  have  side  effects  (such as printing something on the
              standard output) and return either true or false, usually  based
              on  whether  or  not they are successful.  The -print action for
              example prints the name of the current file on the standard out-
              put.

       Global options
              Global  options affect the operation of tests and actions speci-
              fied on any part of the command  line.   Global  options  always
              return  true.  The -depth option for example makes find traverse
              the file system in a depth-first order.

       Positional options
              Positional options affect only tests  or  actions  which  follow
              them.   Positional  options  always return true.  The -regextype
              option for example is positional, specifying the regular expres-
              sion dialect for regular expressions occurring later on the com-
              mand line.

       Operators
              Operators join together the other items within  the  expression.
              They include for example -o (meaning logical OR) and -a (meaning
              logical AND).  Where an operator is missing, -a is assumed.

       If the whole expression  contains  no  actions  other  than  -prune  or
       -print, -print is performed on all files for which the whole expression
       is true.

       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).

   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only  tests  occur-
       ring later on the command line.

       -daystart
              Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24  hours
              ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
              command line.

       -follow
              Deprecated; use the -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic
              links.   Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only those
              tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the  -H
              or  -L  option  has  been specified, the position of the -follow
              option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any  files
              listed  as  the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they
              are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
              -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
              to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
              and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
              -iregex  tests  which  occur  later on the command line.  To see
              which regular expression types are known, use  -regextype  help.
              The Texinfo documentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning of
              and differences between the various types of regular expression.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply  only  to
              the  command  line  usage, not to any conditions that find might
              encounter when it searches directories.  The  default  behaviour
              corresponds  to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
              otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-line  usage
              is  produced,  the  exit status of find is not affected.  If the
              POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is set, and -warn  is  also
              used,  it  is  not  specified  which,  if  any, warnings will be
              active.

   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global options always return true.  Global options take effect even for
       tests  which  occur earlier on the command line.  To prevent confusion,
       global options should specified on the command-line after the  list  of
       start  points, just before the first test, positional option or action.
       If you specify a global option in some other place, find will  issue  a
       warning message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The global options occur after the list of start points, and so are not
       the same kind of option as -L, for example.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -depth Process  each  directory's contents before the directory itself.
              The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to  stat
              a  file.   If you give this option and a file is deleted between
              the time find reads the name of the file from the directory  and
              the  time  it  tries  to stat the file, no error message will be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are  given on the command line.  This option takes effect at the
              time the command line is  read,  which  means  that  you  cannot
              search  one  part of the filesystem with this option on and part
              of it with this option off (if you need to  do  that,  you  will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc-
              tories below the starting-points.  -maxdepth 0
               means  only  apply the tests and actions to the starting-points
              themselves.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a
              non-negative  integer).   -mindepth  1  means  process all files
              except the starting-points.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other  filesystems.   An  alternate
              name  for  -xdev,  for compatibility with some other versions of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that  directories  contain  2  fewer
              subdirectories  than  their  hard  link  count.   This option is
              needed when searching filesystems that do not  follow  the  Unix
              directory-link  convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory  on  a  normal  Unix
              filesystem  has  at  least  2  hard  links: its name and its `.'
              entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any)  each  have  a
              `..'  entry  linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than  the
              directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
              tree).   If  only the files' names need to be examined, there is
              no need to stat them;  this  gives  a  significant  increase  in
              search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
       between the file currently being examined and some reference file spec-
       ified  on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta-
       tion of the reference file is determined by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference  file  cannot
       be  examined  (for  example,  the stat(2) system call fails for it), an
       error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
              how  many  24-hour  periods  ago the file was last accessed, any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi-
              fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
              option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
              points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
              searchable  (in  a file name resolution sense).  This takes into
              account access control lists  and  other  permissions  artefacts
              which  the  -perm  test  ignores.   This  test  makes use of the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use  of  the
              UID  mapping  information held on the server.  Because this test
              is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,  there
              is  no  guarantee  that  a file for which this test succeeds can
              actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of  type  type.   The  valid  filesystem
              types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
              use -printf with the %F directive  to  see  the  types  of  your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
              option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this  test  returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file  names  `Foo',  `FOO',
              `foo',  `fOo', etc.   The pattern `*foo*` will also match a file
              called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It  is  normally  easier  to  use  the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
              File has n hard links.

       -lname pattern
              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
              tern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If
              the  -L  option  or  the  -follow option is in effect, this test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading  directories
              removed)  matches  shell  pattern  pattern.  Because the leading
              directories are removed, the file names considered for  a  match
              with -name will never include a slash, so `-name a/b' will never
              match anything (you probably need  to  use  -path  instead).   A
              warning  is issued if you try to do this, unless the environment
              variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  The metacharacters (`*',  `?',
              and  `[]')  match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a
              change in findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS  CONFORMANCE
              below).   To  ignore  a  directory  and  the files under it, use
              -prune; see an example in the description of -path.  Braces  are
              not  recognised  as  being  special,  despite the fact that some
              shells including Bash imbue braces with  a  special  meaning  in
              shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed with the use
              of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't  forget  to  enclose
              the  pattern  in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by
              the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
              bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the
              modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds if timestamp X of the file being  considered  is  newer
              than  timestamp  Y  of the file reference.   The letters X and Y
              can be any of the following letters:

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for  X
              to  be t.  Some combinations are not implemented on all systems;
              for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
              unsupported  combination  of  XY  is  specified,  a  fatal error
              results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for  the  argu-
              ment  to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth
              time of a reference file, and the birth time  cannot  be  deter-
              mined,  a  fatal  error  message results.  If you specify a test
              which refers to the birth time of  files  being  examined,  this
              test will fail for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File  name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
              exists).   To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
              than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
              directory  `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
              and print the names of the other files found, do something  like
              this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
              starting from one of the start points named on the command line.
              It  would  only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
              the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This  means
              that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find  compares  the  -path  argument with the concatenation of a
              directory name and the base name of  the  file  it's  examining.
              Since the concatenation will never end with a slash, -path argu-
              ments ending in a slash will match  nothing  (except  perhaps  a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path
              is also supported by HP-UX find and is part of  the  POSIX  2008
              standard.

       -perm mode
              File's  permission  bits  are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
              Since an exact match is required, if you want to use  this  form
              for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a rather complex
              mode string.  For example `-perm  g=w'  will  only  match  files
              which  have  mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write per-
              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
              will want to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example `-perm -g=w',
              which matches any file with group  write  permission.   See  the
              EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way  in
              which  you would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or
              `o' if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES  section  for
              some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
              modes are accepted in this form.  You must specify `u',  `g'  or
              `o'  if  you  use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
              some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
              set,  this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consis-
              tent with the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              This is no longer  supported  (and  has  been  deprecated  since
              2005).  Use -perm /mode instead.

       -readable
              Matches  files  which  are  readable.   This  takes into account
              access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
              call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do  UID  mapping
              (or  root-squashing),  since many systems implement access(2) in
              the client's kernel and so cannot make use of  the  UID  mapping
              information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
              named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
              `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
              by  find  are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
              be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space, rounding up.  The following suffixes
              can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix  is
                     used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kibibytes (KiB, units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Mebibytes (MiB, units of 1024 * 1024 = 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for  Gibibytes  (GiB,  units  of  1024  *  1024  * 1024 =
                     1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count  indirect  blocks,  but  it  does  count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf  handle
              sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1024-byte blocks, which  is  different
              to the behaviour of -ls.

              The  +  and  -  prefixes  signify greater than and less than, as
              usual; i.e., an exact size of n units does not match.   Bear  in
              mind  that  the  size  is rounded up to the next unit. Therefore
              -size -1M is not equivalent to -size -1048576c.  The former only
              matches  empty  files,  the  latter  matches  files  from  0  to
              1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow  option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

              To  search  for  more  than one type at once, you can supply the
              combined list of type letters separated  by  a  comma  `,'  (GNU
              extension).

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches  files  which  are  writable.   This  takes into account
              access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
              call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do  UID  mapping
              (or  root-squashing),  since many systems implement access(2) in
              the client's kernel and so cannot make use of  the  UID  mapping
              information held on the server.

       -xtype c
              The  same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For sym-
              bolic links: if the -H or -P option was specified, true  if  the
              file  is  a  link to a file of type c; if the -L option has been
              given, true if c is `l'.  In other words,  for  symbolic  links,
              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux  only)  Security  context of the file matches glob pat-
              tern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an  error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit sta-
              tus will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of  -delete
              automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings:  Don't  forget that the find command line is evaluated
              as an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
              delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
              testing a find command line that you later intend  to  use  with
              -delete,  you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid
              later surprises.  Because -delete  implies  -depth,  you  cannot
              usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
              Execute  command;  true  if 0 status is returned.  All following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
              is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of  these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES sec-
              tion for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified
              command is run once for each matched file.  The command is  exe-
              cuted  in  the starting directory.   There are unavoidable secu-
              rity problems surrounding use of the -exec  action;  you  should
              use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This  variant  of the -exec action runs the specified command on
              the selected files, but the command line is built  by  appending
              each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
              tions of the command will  be  much  less  than  the  number  of
              matched  files.   The command line is built in much the same way
              that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  `{}'
              is  allowed  within the command, and (when find is being invoked
              from a shell) it should be quoted (for example, '{}') to protect
              it  from  interpretation  by shells.  The command is executed in
              the starting directory.  If any invocation  returns  a  non-zero
              value  as exit status, then find returns a non-zero exit status.
              If find encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an immedi-
              ate  exit, so some pending commands may not be run at all.  This
              variant of -exec always returns true.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the  subdirec-
              tory  containing  the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
              directory in which you started find.   As  with  -exec,  the  {}
              should  be quoted if find is being invoked from a shell.  This a
              much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race
              conditions  during resolution of the paths to the matched files.
              As with the -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build  a
              command  line  to  process  more  than one matched file, but any
              given invocation of command will only list files that  exist  in
              the  same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure
              that your $PATH environment variable  does  not  reference  `.';
              otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
              an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
              -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are
              empty or which are not absolute directory names.  If any invoca-
              tion  returns a non-zero value as exit status, then find returns
              a non-zero exit status.  If find encounters an error,  this  can
              sometimes  cause an immediate exit, so some pending commands may
              not be run at all. The result of the action depends  on  whether
              the  +  or  the  ;  variant is being used; -execdir command {} +
              always returns true, while -execdir command {}  ;  returns  true
              only if command returns 0.

       -fls file
              True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file
              is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.   See
              the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist  when  find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is
              truncated.  The file names `/dev/stdout' and  `/dev/stderr'  are
              handled  specially;  they refer to the standard output and stan-
              dard error output, respectively.  The output file is always cre-
              ated,  even  if the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL
              FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual  characters
              in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True;  like  -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True;  list  current file in ls -dils format on standard output.
              The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment  vari-
              able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are
              used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information  about
              how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like  -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the
              command.  Otherwise just return false.  If the command  is  run,
              its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

              The  response to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular
              expressions to determine if it is  an  affirmative  or  negative
              response.   This  regular expression is obtained from the system
              if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or  other-
              wise  from  find's  message  translations.  If the system has no
              suitable definition, find's own definition will  be  used.    In
              either case, the interpretation of the regular expression itself
              will be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE'  (char-
              acter  classes)  and  'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equiva-
              lence classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
              If  the  user does not agree, just return false.  If the command
              is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
              by  a  newline.    If  you  are  piping  the output of find into
              another program and there is the faintest possibility  that  the
              files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
              you should seriously consider using the -print0  option  instead
              of  -print.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
              by  a  null  character  (instead  of  the newline character that
              -print uses).  This allows file names that contain  newlines  or
              other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
              grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds  to
              the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True;  print  format  on  the  standard output, interpreting `\'
              escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can  be
              specified  as  with  the  `printf' C function.  Please note that
              many of the fields are printed as %s rather than  %d,  and  this
              may  mean  that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
              means that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be  left-
              aligned).   Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by  the  C
                     `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's  last  access  time  in the format specified by k,
                     which is either `@' or a directive for the  C  `strftime'
                     function.   The  possible  values for k are listed below;
                     some of them might not be available on all  systems,  due
                     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds  since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with frac-
                            tional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There  is  a  fractional
                            part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date  and  time,  separated  by  `+',  for example
                            `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
                            The  time  is given in the current timezone (which
                            may be affected  by  setting  the  TZ  environment
                            variable).   The  seconds  field  includes a frac-
                            tional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S).  The seconds
                            field includes a fractional part.

                     Z      time  zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                            is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length  (Sun-
                            day..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's  full  month name, variable length (Janu-
                            ary..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov  04  12:02:33  EST
                            1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
                            so to preserve  compatibility  with  that  format,
                            there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week  number  of  year with Sunday as first day of
                            week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as  first  day  of
                            week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
                     blocks.  Since disk space is allocated  in  multiples  of
                     the  filesystem  block  size this is usually greater than
                     %s/512, but it can also be  smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %c     File's  last status change time in the format returned by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     starting-point.

              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's  name  with  any leading directories removed (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
                     no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele-
                     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
                     in the current directory) the  %h  specifier  expands  to
                     `.'.

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %l     Object  of  symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses  the
                     `traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
                     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
                     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
                     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you  should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name  of  the  starting-point  under
                     which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's   sparseness.    This  is  calculated  as  (BLOCK-
                     SIZE*st_blocks / st_size).  The exact value you will  get
                     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen-
                     dent.  However, normally sparse files  will  have  values
                     less  than  1.0,  and files which use indirect blocks may
                     have a value which is greater than 1.0.   The value  used
                     for  BLOCKSIZE  is  system-dependent,  but is usually 512
                     bytes.   If the file size is zero, the value  printed  is
                     undefined.   On systems which lack support for st_blocks,
                     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
                     name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's  type  (like  in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
                     happen)

              %Y     File's type (like  %y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
                     N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A  `%'  character  followed by any other character is discarded,
              but the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as  fur-
              ther  format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end of
              the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
              following  character.   In  some  locales, it may hide your door
              keys, while in others it may remove  the  final  page  from  the
              novel you are reading.

              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
              other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the  align-
              ment  of  a field from right-justified (which is the default) to
              left-justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune True;  if  the  file is a directory, do not descend into it.  If
              -depth is given, false;  no  effect.   Because  -delete  implies
              -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
              no more paths specified on the command line will  be  processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.  Any command lines  which  have  been  built  up  with
              -execdir  ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the shell,
              you will normally need to quote them.  Many of the  examples  in
              this  manual  page  use  backslashes for this purpose: `\(...\)'
              instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will  also  usually  need
              protection from interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two  expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
              -a; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The  value  of
              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
              The comma operator can be useful for searching for several  dif-
              ferent  types  of thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy
              only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the  various
              matched items into several different output files.

       Please note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests
       appearing without an explicit operator between them) or explicitly  has
       higher precedence than -o.  This means that find . -name afile -o -name
       bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing  of  data  which  is
       under  the  control  of  other users.  This includes file names, sizes,
       modification times and so forth.  File names are  a  potential  problem
       since  they  can  contain  any  character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to  your  terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always  print  the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output
              is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space,  backslash,
              and  double  quote characters are printed using C-style escaping
              (for example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are  printed
              using  an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and
              -fls these are the characters between octal 041  and  0176)  are
              printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If  the  output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.
              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
              are not under control of files' owners, and so are  printed  as-
              is.   The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t,
              %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own-
              ers  but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter-
              minal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives  %f,  %h,
              %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same  quoting  mechanism  as
              the  one  used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to decide what
              format to use for the output of find then it is normally  better
              to  use  `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file names
              can contain white space and newline characters.  The setting  of
              the  `LC_CTYPE'  environment variable is used to determine which
              characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and  -fprintf.
              If  you  are  using find in a script or in a situation where the
              matched files might have arbitrary names,  you  should  consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to  the  POSIX  standard,  you  should  set  the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are speci-
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends  on  the
              POSIX  conformance  of the system's fnmatch(3) library function.
              As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*',  `?'  or  `[]'
              for  example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC inter-
              pretation 126 requires this.   This is a  change  from  previous
              versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies  `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and
              `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
              OS  provides these.  Furthermore, GNU find allows multiple types
              to be specified at once in a comma-separated list.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according  to  the
              `yes'  and  `no'  patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
              environment variable.  When  the  `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
              variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of
              a positive (yes) or negative (no) response.   See  the  system's
              documentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR and
              NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the  patterns  are
              instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
              always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable  is  not
              set,  some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not valid
              in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other primaries
              The primaries -atime, -ctime,  -depth,  -exec,  -group,  -links,
              -mtime,  -nogroup,  -nouser,  -ok, -path, -print, -prune, -size,
              -user and -xdev are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
              a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
              file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
              write a diagnostic message to standard error  and  shall  either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find complies with these requirements.  The link count of directo-
       ries which contain entries which are hard links  to  an  ancestor  will
       often  be  lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that GNU
       find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory  which
       is  actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter
       such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic  mes-
       sage.   Although  this  behaviour  may  be  somewhat  confusing,  it is
       unlikely that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the  leaf
       optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued  where  it
       is  appropriate.   Symbolic  links  cannot be used to create filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a
       diagnostic  message  is  issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will
       often  mean  that  find  knows  that  it doesn't need to call stat() or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is frequently not nec-
       essary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the  behaviour
       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat-
              tern  matching  to be used for the -name option.   GNU find uses
              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
              depends on the system library.    This variable also affects the
              interpretation of the response to -ok; while  the  `LC_MESSAGES'
              variable  selects  the  actual  pattern  used  to  interpret the
              response to -ok, the interpretation of any  bracket  expressions
              in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
              regular expressions and also with the -name test,  if  the  sys-
              tem's  fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This variable
              also affects the interpretation of any character classes in  the
              regular expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt
              issued by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment  variable  will  also
              affect  which  characters  are considered to be unprintable when
              filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
              If  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also
              determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
              by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
              alogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched to find the  executa-
              bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_COR-
              RECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they  are
              units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting  this variable also turns off warning messages (that is,
              implies -nowarn) by default, because POSIX requires  that  apart
              from  the  output  for  -ok,  all messages printed on stderr are
              diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
              -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is  not  a  valid  symbolic  mode.   When
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made  by
              the  -ok action is interpreted according to the system's message
              catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message  trans-
              lations.

       TZ     Affects  the  time zone used for some of the time-related format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and  delete  them.
       Note  that  this  will work incorrectly if there are any filenames con-
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and  delete  them,
       processing  filenames  in  such a way that file or directory names con-
       taining single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly  han-
       dled.   The  -name  test  comes before the -type test in order to avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs `file' on every file in or below the  current  directory.   Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly
       protected  by  the  use of a backslash, though single quotes could have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last twenty-four hours.  This command works this way because  the  time
       since  each  file  was  last  modified  is  divided by 24 hours and any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have  to  have  a  modification in the past which is less than 24 hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their  owner,
       and  group,  but  which  other  users can read but not write to.  Files
       which meet these criteria but have  other  permissions  bits  set  (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search  for  files which have read and write permission for their owner
       and group, and which other users can read, without regard to the  pres-
       ence  of  any  extra  permission bits (for example the executable bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or  their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three  of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses
       the octal representation of the file mode, and the other  two  use  the
       symbolic  form.  These commands all search for files which are writable
       by either their owner or their group.   The  files  don't  have  to  be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both  these  commands  do  the  same  thing; search for files which are
       writable by both their owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 \! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w \! -perm /a+x

       These two commands both search for files that are readable  for  every-
       body  (  -perm  -444  or -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set (
       -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( !  -perm
       /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name '*~' -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It  also
       omits  files  or  directories  whose name ends in ~, but not their con-
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true,  so  the
       following  -o  ensures  that  the right hand side is evaluated only for
       those directories which didn't get pruned (the contents of  the  pruned
       directories  are  not  even visited, so their contents are irrelevant).
       The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses  only
       for  clarity.   It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only
       for things that didn't  have  -prune  applied  to  them.   Because  the
       default  `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o, this
       is the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what  is  going
       on.

       find repo/ \( -exec test -d '{}'/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \) \
       -print -prune

       Given  the  following  directory  of  projects and their associated SCM
       administrative  directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for   the
       projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this  example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories
       that have already  been  discovered  (for  example  we  do  not  search
       project3/src  because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures sib-
       ling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

       find /tmp -type f,d,l

       Search for files, directories, and symbolic links in the directory /tmp
       passing these types as a comma-separated list (GNU extension), which is
       otherwise equivalent to the longer, yet more portable:

       find /tmp \( -type f -o -type d -o -type l \)

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0  if  all  files  are  processed  successfully,
       greater  than  0  if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

       When  some  error occurs, find may stop immediately, without completing
       all the actions specified.  For example, some starting points  may  not
       have been examined or some pending program invocations for -exec ... {}
       + or -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1),  xargs(1),  chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3)

       The  full documentation for find is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and find programs are properly installed  at  your  site,  the
       command info find should give you access to the complete manual.

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading `.',  because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       As  of  findutils-4.3.3,  -perm  /000  now matches all files instead of
       none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero  value when it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.
       Previously, find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure  of
       -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in

       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The  syntax  -perm  +MODE was removed in findutils-4.5.12, in favour of
       -perm /MODE.   The  +MODE  syntax  had  been  deprecated  since  findu-
       tils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
   Operator precedence surprises
       The  command  find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print
       afile because this is actually equivalent to find . -name afile  -o  \(
       -name bfile -a -print \).  Remember that the precedence of -a is higher
       than that of -o and when there is no operator specified between  tests,
       -a is assumed.

   "paths must precede expression" error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D ... [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of  doing  things
       this  way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wild-
       card:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the  POSIX
       standard  specifies  for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir  should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The  best  way  to  report  a  bug  is to use the form at http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for  this  is  that  you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general  can  be
       sent  to  the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                       FIND(1)

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