GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1) Git Manual GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)
git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object
git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
[(-F <file>)...] <tree>
This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See git-
Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits
the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the
standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.
A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the
commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits
have no parents.
While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
to get there.
Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
.git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.
An existing tree object
Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.
A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.
Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read from
the standard input.
GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
option without a space.
Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a --gpg-sign option given
earlier on the command line.
A commit encapsulates:
o all parent object ids
o author name, email and date
o committer name and email and the commit time.
While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
committer information is taken from the following environment
variables, if set:
(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the
information is taken from the configuration items user.name and
user.email, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if
that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing
mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully qualified
hostname when that file does not exist).
A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to
be entered and terminated with ^D.
The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support
the following date formats:
Git internal format
It is <unix timestamp> <time zone offset>, where <unix timestamp>
is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch. <time zone offset>
is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which
is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.
The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.
Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
character as well.
In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.
Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.
o The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.
o Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
(.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
other encodings correctly.
o Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
there are a few things to keep in mind.
1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like
commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.
Part of the git(1) suite
Git 2.18.0 06/21/2018 GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)