GIT-REPLACE(1) Git Manual GIT-REPLACE(1)
git-replace - Create, list, delete refs to replace objects
git replace [-f] <object> <replacement>
git replace [-f] --edit <object>
git replace [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
git replace -d <object>...
git replace [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
Adds a replace reference in refs/replace/ namespace.
The name of the replace reference is the SHA-1 of the object that is
replaced. The content of the replace reference is the SHA-1 of the
The replaced object and the replacement object must be of the same
type. This restriction can be bypassed using -f.
Unless -f is given, the replace reference must not yet exist.
There is no other restriction on the replaced and replacement objects.
Merge commits can be replaced by non-merge commits and vice versa.
Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
It is possible to disable use of replacement references for any command
using the --no-replace-objects option just after git.
For example if commit foo has been replaced by commit bar:
$ git --no-replace-objects cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit foo, while:
$ git cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit bar.
The GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS environment variable can be set to achieve
the same effect as the --no-replace-objects option.
If an existing replace ref for the same object exists, it will be
overwritten (instead of failing).
Delete existing replace refs for the given objects.
Edit an object's content interactively. The existing content for
<object> is pretty-printed into a temporary file, an editor is
launched on the file, and the result is parsed to create a new
object of the same type as <object>. A replacement ref is then
created to replace <object> with the newly created object. See git-
var(1) for details about how the editor will be chosen.
When editing, provide the raw object contents rather than
pretty-printed ones. Currently this only affects trees, which will
be shown in their binary form. This is harder to work with, but can
help when repairing a tree that is so corrupted it cannot be
pretty-printed. Note that you may need to configure your editor to
cleanly read and write binary data.
--graft <commit> [<parent>...]
Create a graft commit. A new commit is created with the same
content as <commit> except that its parents will be [<parent>...]
instead of <commit>'s parents. A replacement ref is then created to
replace <commit> with the newly created commit. See
contrib/convert-grafts-to-replace-refs.sh for an example script
based on this option that can convert grafts to replace refs.
-l <pattern>, --list <pattern>
List replace refs for objects that match the given pattern (or all
if no pattern is given). Typing "git replace" without arguments,
also lists all replace refs.
When listing, use the specified <format>, which can be one of
short, medium and long. When omitted, the format defaults to short.
The following format are available:
o short: <replaced sha1>
o medium: <replaced sha1> -> <replacement sha1>
o long: <replaced sha1> (<replaced type>) -> <replacement sha1>
CREATING REPLACEMENT OBJECTS
git-filter-branch(1), git-hash-object(1) and git-rebase(1), among other
git commands, can be used to create replacement objects from existing
objects. The --edit option can also be used with git replace to create
a replacement object by editing an existing object.
If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a
string of commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of
commits and then only replace the commit at the tip of the target
string of commits with the commit at the tip of the replacement string
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that
replace them will not work properly. And using git reset --hard to go
back to a replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement
commit instead of the replaced commit.
There may be other problems when using git rev-list related to pending
Part of the git(1) suite
Git 2.16.1 02/05/2018 GIT-REPLACE(1)