git-rev-list(1)



GIT-REV-LIST(1)                   Git Manual                   GIT-REV-LIST(1)

NAME
       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

SYNOPSIS
       git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
                    [ --skip=<number> ]
                    [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
                    [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
                    [ --sparse ]
                    [ --merges ]
                    [ --no-merges ]
                    [ --min-parents=<number> ]
                    [ --no-min-parents ]
                    [ --max-parents=<number> ]
                    [ --no-max-parents ]
                    [ --first-parent ]
                    [ --remove-empty ]
                    [ --full-history ]
                    [ --not ]
                    [ --all ]
                    [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
                    [ --ignore-missing ]
                    [ --stdin ]
                    [ --quiet ]
                    [ --topo-order ]
                    [ --parents ]
                    [ --timestamp ]
                    [ --left-right ]
                    [ --left-only ]
                    [ --right-only ]
                    [ --cherry-mark ]
                    [ --cherry-pick ]
                    [ --encoding=<encoding> ]
                    [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
                    [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
                    [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
                    [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
                    [ --date=<format>]
                    [ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
                      [ --unpacked ] ]
                    [ --pretty | --header ]
                    [ --bisect ]
                    [ --bisect-vars ]
                    [ --bisect-all ]
                    [ --merge ]
                    [ --reverse ]
                    [ --walk-reflogs ]
                    [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
                    [ --count ]
                    [ --use-bitmap-index ]
                    <commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]

DESCRIPTION
       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the
       given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command
       line form a set of commits that are reachable from any of them, and
       then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are
       subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in
       the command's output. Various other options and paths parameters can be
       used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

                   $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but
       not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand
       for "^'<commit1>' <commit2>". For example, either of the following may
       be used interchangeably:

                   $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
                   $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
       between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

                   $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
                   $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability
       to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a
       lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as
       different as git bisect and git repack.

OPTIONS
   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
           that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
           than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of
           the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple
           --committer=<pattern>).

       --grep-reflog=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
           --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
           instead of ones that match at least one.

       --invert-grep
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
           the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
           letter case.

       --basic-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
           this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
           instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
           pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
           expressions.

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
           compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for
           them providing this option will cause it to die.

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as
           --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
           same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
       --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
           commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
           --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
           root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
           limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
           0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
           upper limit).

       --first-parent
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
           This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
           of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
           tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
           time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
           brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined with
           --bisect.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
           following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
           the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
           line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
           matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
           remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
           listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
           automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
           explicitly.

       --reflog
           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
           command line as <commit>.

       --single-worktree
           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
           options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
           --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
           the current working tree only.

       --ignore-missing
           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
           bad input was not given.

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
           from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
           commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       --quiet
           Don't print anything to standard output. This form is primarily
           meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range
           of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than
           redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be
           formatted.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
           rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
           on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
           symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
           all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
           example below in the description of the --left-right option).
           However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
           other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
           branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
           from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
           i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
           from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
           other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
           precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact
           list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
           limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
           have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream
           mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
           from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
           you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this
           causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from
           the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown as
           ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the reverse-chronological index in the
           reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp for that entry),
           depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index
               format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
               timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
               show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
           information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
           --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       --merge
           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
           and don't exist on all heads to merge.

       --boundary
           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
           with -.

       --use-bitmap-index
           Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one
           is available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees and
           blobs will not have their associated path printed.

       --progress=<header>
           Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
           <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the
       history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
           state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
           the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same
           content)

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful
           history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
           from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
           contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
           commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
           ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that
           are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf",
           and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are
           compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
           TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so
           it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
           to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
           "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       o   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
           modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
           Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are
       available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a
           merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
           (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of
           them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
           available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
           via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
           so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
           does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
           shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
           parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
           more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
           does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
           were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not
           appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
           talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
           we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
           this can be changed, see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
           rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
           included themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
           pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
           rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N,
           and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
           any parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
           one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
           other sides of the merge are never walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
           with parent rewriting does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
           history according to the following rules:

           o   Set C' to C.

           o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
               process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or
               that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
               duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
               TREESAME to.

           o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
               (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
               remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
           --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /
                         `---------'

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
               other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
               completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           o   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
               because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
               because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
           between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e.
           only display commits that are ancestor of the "to" commit and
           descendants of the "from" commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
           but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
           see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense
           that "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this
           example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
           course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
           the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to
           view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D,
           i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path
           option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1)
       they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
       --bisect
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
           between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection
           ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it exists)
           and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the
           excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs
           in refs/bisect/, if

                       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

           outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

           would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
           introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
           repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain
           is of length one. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.

       --bisect-vars
           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
           refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text ready
           to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the
           midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
           number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to
           bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested if
           bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected number
           of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
           bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
           bisect_all.

       --bisect-all
           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and
           excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included and
           excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest
           from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
           --bisect.)

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
           test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason
           (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case,
           after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as
           if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the commit timestamp order.

       --author-date-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
           show commits in the author timestamp order.

       --topo-order
           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
           showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                   ---1----2----4----7
                       \              \
                        3----5----6----8---

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
           rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
           timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
           3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
           avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
           together.

       --reverse
           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section
           above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       --objects
           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
           commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs
           which I need to download if I have the commit object bar but not
           foo".

       --objects-edge
           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
           prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
           to build a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form
           based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce
           network traffic.

       --objects-edge-aggressive
           Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
           commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
           --objects-edge to build "thin" packs for shallow repositories.

       --indexed-objects
           Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on
           the command line. Note that you probably want to use --objects,
           too.

       --unpacked
           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in
           packs.

       --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]
           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
           This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
           unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
           given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
           given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by
           commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

       --do-walk
           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
       specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and
       git-whatchanged(1)

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
           none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
           --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
           it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding=<encoding>
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that
           if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X,
           we will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid
           sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
           fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
           message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
           message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and
           fuller).

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       --relative-date
           Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=<format>
           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
           when using --pretty.  log.date config variable sets a default value
           for the log command's --date option. By default, dates are shown in
           the original time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
           is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user's local time
           zone is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
           hours ago". The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like
           format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

           o   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           o   a space between time and time zone

           o   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
           strict ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
           often found in email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD
           format.

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
           00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
           offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are
           hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
           were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option
           does not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always
           measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
           1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local
           has no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime,
           except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally. Use
           --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale's preferred
           format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
           placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is
           --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
           --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

           o   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           o   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

       --header
           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
           separated with a NUL character.

       --parents
           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
           parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

       --children
           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
           child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
           Simplification above.

       --timestamp
           Print the raw commit timestamp.

       --left-right
           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
           from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from
           the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
           prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

       --graph
           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
           the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
           printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
           drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
           --date-order option may also be specified.

       --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]
           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
           can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
           belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
           them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
           will be shown instead of the default one.

       --count
           Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and
           suppress all other output. When used together with --left-right,
           instead print the counts for left and right commits, separated by a
           tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
           commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent
           commits separated by a tab.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       o   medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
           history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
           the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
           e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
           format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
           you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with
           the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           o   %H: commit hash

           o   %h: abbreviated commit hash

           o   %T: tree hash

           o   %t: abbreviated tree hash

           o   %P: parent hashes

           o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           o   %an: author name

           o   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ae: author email

           o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           o   %ar: author date, relative

           o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %cn: committer name

           o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %ce: committer email

           o   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           o   %cr: committer date, relative

           o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           o   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

           o   %e: encoding

           o   %s: subject

           o   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           o   %b: body

           o   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           o   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

           o   %G?: show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
               signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity, "X"
               for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good signature
               made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature made by a
               revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g.
               missing key) and "N" for no signature

           o   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

           o   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

           o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
               minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the -g
               option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given on the
               command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would yield
               refs/heads/master@{0}).

           o   %gd: shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
               portion is shortened for human readability (so
               refs/heads/master becomes just master).

           o   %gn: reflog identity name

           o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %ge: reflog identity email

           o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %gs: reflog subject

           o   %Cred: switch color to red

           o   %Cgreen: switch color to green

           o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

           o   %Creset: reset color

           o   %C(...): color specification, as described under Values in the
               "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
               colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
               color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
               settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
               %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a historical synonym for the
               default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...) will
               show the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
               (though consider just using `--color=always to enable color for
               the whole output, including this format and anything else git
               might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto
               coloring on the next placeholders until the color is switched
               again.

           o   %m: left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

           o   %n: newline

           o   %%: a raw %

           o   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           o   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
               option of git-shortlog(1).

           o   %<(git-interpret-trailers(1). If the :only option is given, omit
               non-trailer lines from the trailer block. If the :unfold option
               is given, behave as if interpret-trailer's --unfold option was
               given. E.g., %(trailers:only:unfold) to do both.

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
           traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
           an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
           git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
           decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the
           command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
           these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.15.0                        10/30/2017                   GIT-REV-LIST(1)

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