git-show(1)



GIT-SHOW(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-SHOW(1)

NAME
       git-show - Show various types of objects

SYNOPSIS
       git show [options] <object>...

DESCRIPTION
       Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

       For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents
       the merge commit in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc.

       For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.

       For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls-tree with
       --name-only).

       For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

       The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to
       control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.

       This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.

OPTIONS
       <object>...
           The names of objects to show. For a more complete list of ways to
           spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in
           gitrevisions(7).

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
           none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
           --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
           each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
           it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding=<encoding>
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that
           if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X,
           we will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid
           sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
           fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
           message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
           message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and
           fuller).

       --notes[=<treeish>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
           git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <treeish> argument, use the treeish to find the
           notes to display. The treeish can specify the full refname when it
           begins with refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and
           otherwise refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
           being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
           "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
           "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
           Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
           "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
           from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<treeish>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
           options instead.

       --show-signature
           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
           signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

PRETTY FORMATS
       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       o   medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       o   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
           regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
           history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
           the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
           e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
           format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
           you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with
           the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           o   %H: commit hash

           o   %h: abbreviated commit hash

           o   %T: tree hash

           o   %t: abbreviated tree hash

           o   %P: parent hashes

           o   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           o   %an: author name

           o   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ae: author email

           o   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           o   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           o   %ar: author date, relative

           o   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %cn: committer name

           o   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %ce: committer email

           o   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           o   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

           o   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           o   %cr: committer date, relative

           o   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           o   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

           o   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

           o   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           o   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

           o   %e: encoding

           o   %s: subject

           o   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           o   %b: body

           o   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           o   %N: commit notes

           o   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

           o   %G?: show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
               signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity, "X"
               for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good signature
               made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature made by a
               revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g.
               missing key) and "N" for no signature

           o   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

           o   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

           o   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
               minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the -g
               option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given on the
               command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would yield
               refs/heads/master@{0}).

           o   %gd: shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
               portion is shortened for human readability (so
               refs/heads/master becomes just master).

           o   %gn: reflog identity name

           o   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %ge: reflog identity email

           o   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           o   %gs: reflog subject

           o   %Cred: switch color to red

           o   %Cgreen: switch color to green

           o   %Cblue: switch color to blue

           o   %Creset: reset color

           o   %C(...): color specification, as described under Values in the
               "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
               colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
               color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
               settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
               %C(auto,...)  is accepted as a historical synonym for the
               default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...) will
               show the colors even when color is not otherwise enabled
               (though consider just using `--color=always to enable color for
               the whole output, including this format and anything else git
               might color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto
               coloring on the next placeholders until the color is switched
               again.

           o   %m: left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

           o   %n: newline

           o   %%: a raw %

           o   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           o   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
               option of git-shortlog(1).

           o   %<(git-interpret-trailers(1)

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
           traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
           an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
           git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
           decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the
           command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
           these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -s, --no-patch
           Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show
           the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
           three. Implies -p.

       --raw
           For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw diff
           format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of git-diff(1). This is
           different from showing the log itself in raw format, which you can
           achieve with --format=raw.

       --patch-with-raw
           Synonym for -p --raw.

       --indent-heuristic, --no-indent-heuristic
           These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics
           (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to make
           patches easier to read.

       --minimal
           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
           produced.

       --patience
           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}
           Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

           default, myers
               The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the
               default.

           minimal
               Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
               produced.

           patience
               Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

           histogram
               This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
               low-occurrence common elements".

           For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
           non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
           use --diff-algorithm=default option.

       --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
           Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be
           used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
           Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
           connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
           width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
           <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be
           limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands
           generating a stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
           (does not affect git format-patch). By giving a third parameter
           <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
           followed by ...  if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with
           --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and
           --stat-count=<count>.

       --numstat
           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
           decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
           machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
           0 0.

       --shortstat
           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
           number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
           lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
           sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
           passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
           controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
           config(1)). The following parameters are available:

           changes
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
               been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
               ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In
               other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
               as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
               parameter is given.

           lines
               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
               diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
               binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files
               have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
               --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
               rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
               resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other
               --*stat options.

           files
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
               changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
               analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
               behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents
               at all.

           cumulative
               Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as
               well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
               percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default
               (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the
               noncumulative parameter.

           <limit>
               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
               default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
               the changes are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
           directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
           files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
           directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

       --summary
           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
           creations, renames and mode changes.

       --patch-with-stat
           Synonym for -p --stat.

       -z
           Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

           Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge
           pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

           Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted
           as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see
           git-config(1)).

       --name-only
           Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
           the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
           Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
           --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just shows
           the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
           When --submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log format is
           used. This format lists the commits in the range like git-
           submodule(1) summary does. When --submodule=diff is specified, the
           diff format is used. This format shows an inline diff of the
           changes in the submodule contents between the commit range.
           Defaults to diff.submodule or the short format if the config option
           is unset.

       --color[=<when>]
           Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
           --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

       --no-color
           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
           default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
           below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

           color
               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

           plain
               Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to
               escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the
               output may be ambiguous.

           porcelain
               Use a special line-based format intended for script
               consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
               usual unified diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character at
               the beginning of the line and extending to the end of the line.
               Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of
               its own.

           none
               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
           highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

       --word-diff-regex=<regex>
           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs
           of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it
           was already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
           Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
           ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
           append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure that
           it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
           newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a
           word and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
           option, see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
           overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
           override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
           --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
           the default to do so.

       --check
           Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
           What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by
           core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
           (including lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space
           character that is immediately followed by a tab character inside
           the initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
           Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
           with --exit-code.

       --ws-error-highlight=<kind>
           Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new lines of the
           diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none resets previous
           values, default reset the list to new and all is a shorthand for
           old,new,context. When this option is not given, and the
           configuration variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only
           whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The whitespace
           errors are colored whith color.diff.whitespace.

       --full-index
           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
           post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
           patch format output.

       --binary
           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
           applied with git-apply.

       --abbrev[=<n>]
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
           diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
           partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
           above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
           number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
           This serves two purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
           file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
           a very few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but
           as a single deletion of everything old followed by a single
           insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect
           of the -B option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less
           than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to
           consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
           will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
           context lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
           the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
           disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
           this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
           that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
           the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
           source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For
           following files across renames while traversing history, see
           --follow. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
           index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the file's
           size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
           pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed.
           Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
           decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the
           same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
           detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
           index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
           n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
           the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
           This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
           for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
           large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
           option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
           the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is
           not meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
           people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text after the
           change. In addition, the output obviously lacks enough information
           to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of
           the option.

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
           part of a delete/create pair.

       -l<num>
           The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
           number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
           rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
           targets exceeds the specified number.

       --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
           Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
           symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
           (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
           filter characters (including none) can be used. When *
           (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are selected
           if there is any file that matches other criteria in the comparison;
           if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is
           selected.

           Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
           --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

       -S<string>
           Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
           specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
           the scripter's use.

           It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
           struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
           came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the
           interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going
           until you get the very first version of the block.

       -G<regex>
           Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines
           that match <regex>.

           To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
           -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
           file:

               +    return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
               ...
               -    hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);

           While git log -G"regexec\(regexp" will show this commit, git log
           -S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
           occurrences of that string did not change).

           See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

       --pickaxe-all
           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
           changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
           Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
           expression to match.

       -O<orderfile>
           Control the order in which files appear in the output. This
           overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see git-
           config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

           The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
           <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first pattern
           are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second
           pattern (but not the first) are output next, and so on. All files
           with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last, as if
           there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file. If
           multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
           but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other
           is the normal order.

           <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

           o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for
               readability.

           o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can be
               used for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the beginning of
               the pattern if it starts with a hash.

           o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

           Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
           fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
           matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
           components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar"
           matches "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       -R
           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
           file to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>]
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
           exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
           to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
           a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
           output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

       --ignore-space-at-eol
           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
           line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
           whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
           even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

       --ignore-blank-lines
           Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
           lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other. Defaults
           to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --ext-diff
           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
           external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
           option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
           comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
           textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
           diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
           this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
           diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
           plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
           either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
           Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either
           contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the
           commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
           settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
           When "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when
           they only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
           modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
           tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
           superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using
           "all" hides all changes to submodules.

       --src-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       --line-prefix=<prefix>
           Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

       --ita-invisible-in-index
           By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
           empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
           This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and
           non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be reverted
           with --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental and
           could be removed in future.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
       gitdiffcore(7).

GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P
       When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
       with a -p option, "git diff" without the --raw option, or "git log"
       with the "-p" option, they do not produce the output described above;
       instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation of
       such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
       environment variables.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format:

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
           involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
           is not used in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
           source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
           rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file
           type and file permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/
           prefixes.

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
           dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a
           rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity
           index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while
           100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it
           into the new one.

           The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the
           change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change;
           otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

        3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the
           configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit,
           and all the file2 files refer to files after the commit. It is
           incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For
           example, this patch will swap a and b:

               diff --git a/a b/b
               rename from a
               rename to b
               diff --git a/b b/a
               rename from b
               rename to a

COMBINED DIFF FORMAT
       Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option to produce a
       combined diff when showing a merge. This is the default format when
       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give the -m option to any of these commands to force generation of
       diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
             }

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
             {
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;
                           for_each_ref(get_name);

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
           -c option is used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
           shows a merge with two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
           the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
           information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
           detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
           not used by combined diff format.

        3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
           /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
           feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
           review of merge commit changes, and was not meant for apply. The
           change is similar to the change in the extended index header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
           for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
       B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space --
       unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN.
       One column for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note
       how X's line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
       (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that
       parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
       mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2).
       Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in
       file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

EXAMPLES
       git show v1.0.0
           Shows the tag v1.0.0, along with the object the tags points at.

       git show v1.0.0^{tree}
           Shows the tree pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show -s --format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}
           Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show next~10:Documentation/README
           Shows the contents of the file Documentation/README as they were
           current in the 10th last commit of the branch next.

       git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile
           Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head of the
           branch master.

DISCUSSION
       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
           to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
           in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
           (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
           and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
           path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
           use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
           on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
           Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
           tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
           other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
           CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like
           this:

               [i18n]
                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
           UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
           output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
           like this:

               [i18n]
                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.14.2                        09/26/2017                       GIT-SHOW(1)

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