gpg2(1)



GPG(1)                       GNU Privacy Guard 2.1                      GPG(1)

NAME
       gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg  is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard.  gpg  features  complete key management and all the bells and
       whistles you would expect from a full OpenPGP implementation.

       There are two main versions of GnuPG: GnuPG 1.x and GnuPG  2.x.   GnuPG
       2.x  supports modern encryption algorithms and thus should be preferred
       over GnuPG 1.x.  You only need  to  use  GnuPG  1.x  if  your  platform
       doesn't  support  GnuPG 2.x, or you need support for some features that
       GnuPG 2.x has deprecated, e.g.,  decrypting  data  created  with  PGP-2
       keys.

       If  you  are  looking for version 1 of GnuPG, you may find that version
       installed under the name gpg1.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
       Use  a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
       protect your secret key. This passphrase is the  weakest  part  of  the
       whole  system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
       are very easy to write and  so  you  should  protect  your  "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep  in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram  knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the  OpenPGP  stan-
       dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
       standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2  compression
       algorithms.  It  is important to be aware that not all OpenPGP programs
       implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their  use  via
       the  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-
       algo options in GnuPG, it is  possible  to  create  a  perfectly  valid
       OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There  are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each
       supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example,  until  recently,  no  (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
       BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences system that will always do the right thing  and  create  messages
       that  are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP program
       they use. Only override this safe default if you really know  what  you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences
       on a given key are invalid for some reason,  you  are  far  better  off
       using  the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe as
       they do not force any particular algorithms in  violation  of  OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands  are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.  Generally  speaking,  irrelevant  options
       are silently ignored, and may not be checked for correctness.

       gpg may be run with no commands. In this case it will perform a reason-
       able action depending on the type of file it  is  given  as  input  (an
       encrypted  message  is  decrypted, a signature is verified, a file con-
       taining keys is listed, etc.).

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help
       -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
              options.  Note that you cannot arbitrarily abbreviate this  com-
              mand (though you can use its short form -h).

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print  a  list of all available options and commands.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign
       -s     Sign a message. This command may be combined with --encrypt  (to
              sign  and encrypt a message), --symmetric (to sign and symmetri-
              cally encrypt a message), or both --encrypt and --symmetric  (to
              sign  and encrypt a message that can be decrypted using a secret
              key or a passphrase).  The signing key is chosen by  default  or
              can  be  set explicitly using the --local-user and --default-key
              options.

       --clear-sign
       --clearsign
              Make a cleartext signature.  The content in a  cleartext  signa-
              ture  is readable without any special software. OpenPGP software
              is only needed to verify the  signature.   cleartext  signatures
              may  modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence and
              are not intended to be reversible.  The signing key is chosen by
              default  or  can  be  set  explicitly using the --local-user and
              --default-key options.

       --detach-sign
       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt
       -e     Encrypt data. This command may be combined with --sign (to  sign
              and  encrypt  a message), --symmetric (to encrypt a message that
              can decrypted using a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign and
              --symmetric together (for a signed message that can be decrypted
              using a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric
       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The  default
              symmetric  cipher  used  is  AES-128, but may be chosen with the
              --cipher-algo option. This command may be combined  with  --sign
              (for  a  signed  and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt
              (for a message that may be decrypted  via  a  secret  key  or  a
              passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
              sage that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple literal data packet).

       --decrypt
       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no  file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output). If the decrypted file is  signed,  the  signature  is
              also  verified. This command differs from the default operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and it rejects files that don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first argument is a signed file and verify it
              without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
              packet  is  read from STDIN.  If only one argument is given, the
              specified file is expected to include a complete signature.

              With more than one argument, the first argument should specify a
              file  with  a  detached signature and the remaining files should
              contain the signed data. To read the signed data from STDIN, use
              '-'  as  the  second filename.  For security reasons, a detached
              signature will not read the signed material from  STDIN  if  not
              explicitly specified.

              Note:  If  the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume that a
              single argument is a file with a detached signature, and it will
              try  to find a matching data file by stripping certain suffixes.
              Using this historical feature to verify a detached signature  is
              strongly  discouraged;  you  should always specify the data file
              explicitly.

              Note: When verifying a cleartext signature,  gpg  verifies  only
              what  makes  up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
              outside of the cleartext signature or the header lines  directly
              following the dash marker line.  The option --output may be used
              to write out the actual signed data, but there  are  other  pit-
              falls with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid clear-
              text signatures in favor of detached signatures.

              Note: Sometimes the use of the gpgv tool is  easier  than  using
              the full-fledged gpg with this option.  gpgv is designed to com-
              pare signed data against a list of trusted keys and returns with
              success only for a good signature.  It has its own manual page.

       --multifile
              This  modifies  certain  other commands to accept multiple files
              for processing on the command line or read from STDIN with  each
              filename  on  a  separate line. This allows for many files to be
              processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along  with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
              ify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys
       -k
       --list-public-keys
              List the specified keys.  If no keys  are  specified,  then  all
              keys from the configured public keyrings are listed.

              Never  use  the  output of this command in scripts or other pro-
              grams.  The output is intended only for humans and its format is
              likely  to change.  The --with-colons option emits the output in
              a stable, machine-parseable format, which is intended for use by
              scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys
       -K     List  the specified secret keys.  If no keys are specified, then
              all known secret keys are listed.  A # after  the  initial  tags
              sec  or ssb means that the secret key or subkey is currently not
              usable.  We also say that this key has been taken  offline  (for
              example,  a primary key can be taken offline by exported the key
              using the command --export-secret-subkeys).   A  >  after  these
              tags  indicate  that the key is stored on a smartcard.  See also
              --list-keys.

       --list-signatures
       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are  listed  too.   This
              command  has  the  same effect as using --list-keys with --with-
              sig-list.

              For each signature listed, there are several  flags  in  between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about each signature. From left to right, they are  the  numbers
              1-3  for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L" for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable  signature  (see  the --edit-key command "nrsign"),
              "P" for a signature that contains a policy URL (see  --cert-pol-
              icy-url),  "N"  for  a  signature  that contains a notation (see
              --cert-notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see  --ask-cert-
              expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
              trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-signatures
       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-signatures,  but  the  signatures  are  verified.
              Note  that  for  performance  reasons the revocation status of a
              signing key is not shown.  This command has the same  effect  as
              using --list-keys with --with-sig-check.

              The  status  of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
              following the "sig" tag (and thus  before  the  flags  described
              above  for  --list-signatures).  A "!" indicates that the signa-
              ture has been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad  signa-
              ture  and  a "%" is used if an error occurred while checking the
              signature (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
              Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
              the  same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption or
              signing and may thus be used to see what keys gpg might use.  In
              particular  external methods as defined by --auto-key-locate may
              be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with  their  finger-
              prints.  This  is  the  same  output as --list-keys but with the
              additional output of a line with the fingerprint.  May  also  be
              combined  with --list-signatures or --check-signatures.  If this
              command is given twice, the fingerprints of all  secondary  keys
              are  listed  too.   This  command also forces pretty printing of
              fingerprints if the keyid format has been set to "none".

       --list-packets
              List only the sequence of packets.  This command is only  useful
              for  debugging.   When used with option --verbose the actual MPI
              values are dumped and not only their  lengths.   Note  that  the
              output of this command may change with new releases.

       --edit-card
       --card-edit
              Present  a  menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
              provides an overview  on  available  commands.  For  a  detailed
              description, please see the Card HOWTO at https://gnupg.org/doc-
              umentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of  a  smartcard.  This
              functionality  is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with
              the --edit-card command.

       --delete-keys name
              Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode  either  --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-keys name
              Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode the  key  must
              be  specified  by  fingerprint.  The option --yes can be used to
              advice gpg-agent not to request a confirmation.  This extra pre-
              caution  is  done  because gpg can't be sure that the secret key
              (as controlled by gpg-agent) is only used for the given  OpenPGP
              public key.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same  as  --delete-key,  but  if a secret key exists, it will be
              removed first. In batch mode the key must be specified  by  fin-
              gerprint.   The option --yes can be used to advice gpg-agent not
              to request a confirmation.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default  keyrings  and
              those  registered via option --keyring), or if at least one name
              is given, those of the given name. The exported keys are written
              to  STDOUT  or  to  the  file  given  with option --output.  Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys keyIDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.   Finger-
              prints  may be used instead of key IDs.  Option --keyserver must
              be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
              plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
              are new or changed by you.  If no keyIDs  are  given,  gpg  does
              nothing.

       --export-secret-keys
       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same  as  --export,  but  exports  the secret keys instead.  The
              exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the  file  given  with
              option  --output.   This  command  is  often used along with the
              option --armor to allow for easy printing of the key  for  paper
              backup;  however the external tool paperkey does a better job of
              creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can
              be  a  security risk if the exported keys are sent over an inse-
              cure channel.

              The second form of the command has the special property to  ren-
              der  the  secret  part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU
              extension to  OpenPGP  and  other  implementations  can  not  be
              expected to successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is
              in generating a full key with an additional signing subkey on  a
              dedicated  machine.   This  command then exports the key without
              the primary key to the main machine.

              GnuPG may ask you to enter the passphrase for the key.  This  is
              required,  because  the internal protection method of the secret
              key is different from the one specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

       --export-ssh-key
              This command is used to export a key in the OpenSSH  public  key
              format.   It  requires the specification of one key by the usual
              means and exports the latest valid subkey which has an authenti-
              cation  capability  to  STDOUT  or to the file given with option
              --output.  That output can directly be added  to  ssh's  'autho-
              rized_key' file.

              By  specifying the key to export using a key ID or a fingerprint
              suffixed with an exclamation mark (!), a specific subkey or  the
              primary  key  can  be exported.  This does not even require that
              the key has the authentication capability flag set.

       --import
       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
              fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There  are  a  few  other options which control how this command
              works.  Most notable here  is  the  --import-options  merge-only
              option  which does not insert new keys but does only the merging
              of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --receive-keys keyIDs
       --recv-keys keyIDs
              Import the keys with the given keyIDs from a  keyserver.  Option
              --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request  updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on
              the local keyring. This is useful for updating a  key  with  the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to  give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
              preferred keyservers  set  (see  --keyserver-options  honor-key-
              server-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search  the  keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.   Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of
              this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search  meth-
              ods  allow  using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user
              ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
              search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
              installations of GnuPG may support  different  protocols  (HTTP,
              FTP,  LDAP,  etc.).   When  using HTTPS the system provided root
              certificates are used by this command.

       --update-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance. This command  iterates  over  all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The  user  has  to  give an estimation of how far she trusts the
              owner of the displayed key to  correctly  certify  (sign)  other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the  assigned
              value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do  trust  database  maintenance  without user interaction. From
              time to time the trust database must be updated so that  expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG  will  calculate  when  this  is
              required  and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at  any  time.  The processing is identical to that of --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For use with cron jobs, this command can be used  together  with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check is needed. To force a run  even  in  batch  mode  add  the
              option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send  the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
              purposes as these values are the only ones which  can't  be  re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update  the  trustdb  with the ownertrust values stored in files
              (or STDIN if not given); existing values  will  be  overwritten.
              In  case  of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent
              backup of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file 'otrust.txt'),
              you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used to create signature caches in  the  keyring.  It  might  be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo
       --print-mds
              Print  message  digest  of algorithm algo for all given files or
              STDIN.  With the second form (or  a  deprecated  "*"  for  algo)
              digests for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
              count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random  bytes
              will be emitted.  If used with --armor the output will be base64
              encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless  you  know  what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is subject to change
              with ant release.

       --enarmor
       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input  into/from  an  OpenPGP  ASCII
              armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

       --tofu-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask} keys
              Set the TOFU policy for all the  bindings  associated  with  the
              specified  keys.   For more information about the meaning of the
              policies, see: [trust-model-tofu].  The keys  may  be  specified
              either by their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management.

       --quick-generate-key user-id [algo [usage [expire]]]
              This  is  a  simple  command to generate a standard key with one
              user id.  In contrast to --generate-key  the  key  is  generated
              directly  without the need to answer a bunch of prompts.  Unless
              the option --yes is given, the key creation will be canceled  if
              the given user id already exists in the keyring.

              If  invoked  directly on the console without any special options
              an answer  to  a  ``Continue?''  style  confirmation  prompt  is
              required.   In  case the user id already exists in the keyring a
              second prompt to force the creation of the key will show up.

              If algo or usage are given, only the primary key is created  and
              no  prompts  are shown.  To specify an expiration date but still
              create  a  primary  and  subkey  use  ``default''  or  ``future-
              default'' for algo and ``default'' for usage.  For a description
              of these optional arguments  see  the  command  --quick-add-key.
              The  usage  accepts also the value ``cert'' which can be used to
              create a certification only primary key; the  default  is  to  a
              create certification and signing key.

              The  expire  argument  can be used to specify an expiration date
              for the key.  Several formats are supported;  commonly  the  ISO
              formats ``YYYY-MM-DD'' or ``YYYYMMDDThhmmss'' are used.  To make
              the key expire in N seconds, N days, N weeks,  N  months,  or  N
              years  use  ``seconds=N'',  ``Nd'',  ``Nw'',  ``Nm'',  or ``Ny''
              respectively.  Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in
              a  key  expiring  in  a reasonable default interval.  The values
              ``never'', ``none'' can be used for no expiration date.

              If this command is used with --batch, --pinentry-mode  has  been
              set   to   loopback,   and   one   of   the  passphrase  options
              (--passphrase, --passphrase-fd, or passphrase-file) is used, the
              supplied  passphrase  is used for the new key and the agent does
              not ask  for  it.   To  create  a  key  without  any  protection
              --passphrase '' may be used.

       --quick-set-expire fpr expire [*|subfprs]
              With  two  arguments  given, directly set the expiration time of
              the primary key identified by fpr  to  expire.   To  remove  the
              expiration  time  0  can  be used.  With three arguments and the
              third given as an asterisk, the  expiration  time  of  all  non-
              revoked  and  not  yet  expired subkeys are set to expire.  With
              more than two arguments and a list  of  fingerprints  given  for
              subfprs, all non-revoked subkeys matching these fingerprints are
              set to expire.

       --quick-add-key fpr [algo [usage [expire]]]
              Directly add a subkey to the key identified by  the  fingerprint
              fpr.   Without  the  optional  arguments an encryption subkey is
              added.  If any of the arguments are given a more specific subkey
              is added.

              algo may be any of the supported algorithms or curve names given
              in the format as used by key listings.  To use the default algo-
              rithm  the  string  ``default'' or ``-'' can be used.  Supported
              algorithms   are   ``rsa'',   ``dsa'',   ``elg'',   ``ed25519'',
              ``cv25519'',  and  other  ECC  curves.   For  example the string
              ``rsa'' adds an RSA key with the default key  length;  a  string
              ``rsa4096''  requests  that  the  key  length is 4096 bits.  The
              string ``future-default'' is an alias for  the  algorithm  which
              will  likely  be used as default algorithm in future versions of
              gpg.

              Depending on the given algo the subkey may either be an  encryp-
              tion  subkey or a signing subkey.  If an algorithm is capable of
              signing and encryption and such a subkey  is  desired,  a  usage
              string  must  be  given.   This  string is either ``default'' or
              ``-'' to keep the default or a comma delimited  list  (or  space
              delimited  list)  of  keywords:  ``sign''  for a signing subkey,
              ``auth'' for an  authentication  subkey,  and  ``encr''  for  an
              encryption   subkey  (``encrypt''  can  be  used  as  alias  for
              ``encr'').  The valid combinations depend on the algorithm.

              The expire argument can be used to specify  an  expiration  date
              for  the  key.   Several formats are supported; commonly the ISO
              formats ``YYYY-MM-DD'' or ``YYYYMMDDThhmmss'' are used.  To make
              the  key  expire  in  N seconds, N days, N weeks, N months, or N
              years use  ``seconds=N'',  ``Nd'',  ``Nw'',  ``Nm'',  or  ``Ny''
              respectively.  Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in
              a key expiring in a reasonable  default  interval.   The  values
              ``never'', ``none'' can be used for no expiration date.

       --generate-key
       --gen-key
              Generate  a  new  key pair using the current default parameters.
              This is the standard command to create a new key.   In  addition
              to the key a revocation certificate is created and stored in the
              'openpgp-revocs.d' directory below the GnuPG home directory.

       --full-generate-key
       --full-gen-key
              Generate a new key pair with dialogs for all options.   This  is
              an extended version of --generate-key.

              There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
              mode. See the manual section ``Unattended  key  generation''  on
              how to use this.

       --generate-revocation name
       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To only
              revoke a subkey or a key signature, use the --edit command.

              This command merely creates the revocation certificate  so  that
              it  can  be  used  to revoke the key if that is ever needed.  To
              actually revoke a key the created revocation  certificate  needs
              to  be merged with the key to revoke.  This is done by importing
              the revocation certificate using the --import command.  Then the
              revoked key needs to be published, which is best done by sending
              the key to a keyserver (command  --send-key)  and  by  exporting
              (--export)  it to a file which is then send to frequent communi-
              cation partners.

       --generate-designated-revocation name
       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate  for  a  key.  This
              allows  a  user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
              ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a key on
              the command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID  with
                     index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n or key ID n.  Use
                     * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make a signature on key of user name. If the key  is  not
                     yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
                     -u), the program displays  the  information  of  the  key
                     again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
                     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                     specified with -u.

              lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-
                     exportable and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
                     This  may  be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
                     environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the notions of certification (like a regular  signature),
                     and  trust  (like  the  "trust" command). It is generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.  For  more
                     information  please read the sections ``Trust Signature''
                     and ``Regular Expression'' in RFC-4880.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
              cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

       If the option --only-sign-text-ids  is  specified,  then  any  non-text
       based user ids (e.g., photo IDs) will not be selected for signing.

              delsig Delete  a  signature.  Note  that  it  is not possible to
                     retract a signature, once it has been send to the  public
                     (i.e.  to  a  keyserver).   In  that  case you better use
                     revsig.

              revsig Revoke a signature. For every signature  which  has  been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.  With  the
                     extra option selfsig only self-signatures are shown.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create  a  photographic  user  ID. This will prompt for a
                     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
                     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
                     Also note that  some  programs  will  display  your  JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note  that  it
                     is  not  possible  to retract a user id, once it has been
                     send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that  case
                     you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  one second
                     ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                     it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
                     lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other  regu-
                     lar user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).
                     This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                     your  key  from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
                     url for more on how  this  works.   Setting  a  value  of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting  a  notation  name  (without the =value) prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user  ID.  This  shows
                     the  actual  preferences,  without  including any implied
                     preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for  the  selected  user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                     included in the preference list. In  addition,  the  pre-
                     ferred  keyserver  and  signature  notations (if any) are
                     shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just  the  selected)  user  IDs.  Calling setpref with no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
                     ing setpref with "none" as the  argument  sets  an  empty
                     preference  list.  Use  gpg  --version  to  get a list of
                     available algorithms. Note that while you can change  the
                     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
                     GnuPG does not select keys  via  attribute  user  IDs  so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms
                     in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone
                     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
                     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
                     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
                     algorithm (for example, your key  may  not  be  the  only
                     recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
                     used to send to you may or may not follow your exact cho-
                     sen  order  for  a given message.  It will, however, only
                     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
                     list of every recipient key.  See also the INTEROPERABIL-
                     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
                     if  no  subkey  has  been  selected)  to a smartcard. The
                     secret key in the keyring will be replaced by a  stub  if
                     the  key could be stored successfully on the card and you
                     use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                     transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to select
                     on what card to store the key. Note that it is not possi-
                     ble to get that key back from the card - if the card gets
                     broken your secret key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
                     backup somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore  the  given  file  to a card. This command may be
                     used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
                     initialization)  to  a new card. In almost all cases this
                     will be the encryption key. You should use  this  command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the file given  as  argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
                     restore.  You  should then select 2 to restore as encryp-
                     tion  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter   the
                     passphrase  of  the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                     of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondary key). Note that it is not pos-
                     sible  to  retract a subkey, once it has been send to the
                     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you  better
                     use  revkey.  Also note that this only deletes the public
                     part of a key.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey  is
                     selected,  the  expiration  time  of  this subkey will be
                     changed. With no selection, the  key  expiration  of  the
                     primary key is changed.

              trust  Change  the  owner  trust value for the key. This updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable
              enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key  can  not
                     normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add  a  designated  revoker  to  the  key. This takes one
                     optional argument: "sensitive". If a  designated  revoker
                     is  marked  as  sensitive,  it  will  not  be exported by
                     default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle This is dummy command which exists only for backward com-
                     patibility.

              clean  Compact  (by  removing all signatures except the selfsig)
                     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by the trust calculations.   Specifically,  this  removes
                     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that
                     is superseded by a later signature,  revoked  signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.

              minimize
                     Make the key as small as possible. This removes all  sig-
                     natures  from  each  user  ID  except for the most recent
                     self-signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
                     that  may  not  currently  have them. Cross-certification
                     signatures protect against a subtle attack against  sign-
                     ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
                     keys generated have this signature by  default,  so  this
                     command is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the keyrings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the keyrings.

              The  listing  shows  you the key with its secondary keys and all
              user ids.  The primary user  id  is  indicated  by  a  dot,  and
              selected  keys  or  user  ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The
              trust value is displayed with the primary key: the first is  the
              assigned  owner  trust  and  the  second is the calculated trust
              value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an  expired
                     key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
              sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key but  marks  it  as  non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.

       --quick-sign-key fpr [names]
       --quick-lsign-key fpr [names]
              Directly sign a key from the passphrase without any further user
              interaction.   The  fpr must be the verified primary fingerprint
              of a key in the local keyring. If no names are given, all useful
              user  ids  are  signed;  with given [names] only useful user ids
              matching one of theses names are signed.  By default,  or  if  a
              name  is prefixed with a '*', a case insensitive substring match
              is used.  If a name is prefixed with  a  '='  a  case  sensitive
              exact match is done.

              The  command  --quick-lsign-key  marks  the  signatures  as non-
              exportable.  If such a non-exportable signature  already  exists
              the --quick-sign-key turns it into a exportable signature.

              This  command uses reasonable defaults and thus does not provide
              the full flexibility of the "sign" subcommand  from  --edit-key.
              Its  intended use is to help unattended key signing by utilizing
              a list of verified fingerprints.

       --quick-add-uid user-id new-user-id
              This command adds a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast
              to  the  interactive  sub-command  adduid of --edit-key the new-
              user-id is added verbatim with only leading and  trailing  white
              space removed, it is expected to be UTF-8 encoded, and no checks
              on its form are applied.

       --quick-revoke-uid user-id user-id-to-revoke
              This command revokes a user ID on an existing key.  It cannot be
              used to revoke the last user ID on key (some non-revoked user ID
              must remain), with revocation reason  ``User  ID  is  no  longer
              valid''.   If you want to specify a different revocation reason,
              or to supply supplementary revocation text, you should  use  the
              interactive sub-command revuid of --edit-key.

       --quick-set-primary-uid user-id primary-user-id
              This  command  sets  or  updates  the primary user ID flag on an
              existing key.  user-id specifies the key and primary-user-id the
              user ID which shall be flagged as the primary user ID.  The pri-
              mary user ID flag is removed from all other  user  ids  and  the
              timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  is set one second
              ahead.

       --change-passphrase user-id
       --passwd user-id
              Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging  to  the  cer-
              tificate  specified as user-id.  This is a shortcut for the sub-
              command passwd of the edit key menu.

OPTIONS
       gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour  and  to
       change the default configuration.

       Long    options    can   be   put   in   an   options   file   (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names will not work -  for  example,
       "armor"  is  a  valid option for the options file, while "a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the  name  of  the  option  and  any
       required  arguments.  Lines  with  a hash ('#') as the first non-white-
       space character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too,  but
       that  is not generally useful as the command will execute automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as  a  non-option  is
       encountered,  you  can  explicitly  stop  parsing  by using the special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change  the  configuration  and  are  usually
       found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use  name as the default key to sign with. If this option is not
              used, the default key is the  first  key  found  in  the  secret
              keyring.   Note  that  -u or --local-user overrides this option.
              This option may be given multiple times.  In this case, the last
              key for which a secret key is available is used.  If there is no
              secret key available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will
              not  emit an error message but continue as if this option wasn't
              given.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not  used
              and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use  the  default key as default recipient if option --recipient
              is not used and don't ask if this is a valid  one.  The  default
              key is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
              --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during  processing.  If  used  twice,  the
              input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch
       --no-batch
              Use  batch  mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
              --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
              given  on  the  command  line, gpg might still need to read from
              STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
              signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do
              not want to feed data via STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
              g'/dev/null'.

              It  is  highly  recommended  to  use  this option along with the
              options --status-fd and --with-colons for any unattended use  of
              gpg.

       --no-tty
              Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
              This option is needed in  some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when listing keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
              --list-signatures,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys, and
              the --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a  no-
              (after  the  two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite meaning.  The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes  --list-keys,  --list-signatures,   --list-public-
                     keys,  and  --list-secret-keys  to  display any photo IDs
                     attached to the key.  Defaults to no. See  also  --photo-
                     viewer.    Does   not   work   with   --with-colons:  see
                     --attribute-fd for the appropriate way to get photo  data
                     for scripts and other frontends.

              show-usage
                     Show  usage information for keys and subkeys in the stan-
                     dard key listing.  This is a list of  letters  indicating
                     the  allowed  usage  for  a key (E=encryption, S=signing,
                     C=certification, A=authentication).  Defaults to yes.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-signatures or --check-sig-
                     natures listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                     tions  in  the  --list-signatures  or  --check-signatures
                     listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the --list-signatures
                     or --check-signatures listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user  IDs  during  key
                     listings.  Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display  the  keyring name at the head of key listings to
                     show which keyring a given key resides  on.  Defaults  to
                     no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                     signatures or --check-signatures  listings.  Defaults  to
                     no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include  signature  subpackets  in  the key listing. This
                     option can take an optional argument list of the subpack-
                     ets  to list. If no argument is passed, list all subpack-
                     ets. Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful  when
                     using   --with-colons  along  with  --list-signatures  or
                     --check-signatures.

       --verify-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited  string  that  gives  options
              used  when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued  the
                     signature.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show   policy  URLs  in  the  signature  being  verified.
                     Defaults to yes.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature  nota-
                     tions  in  the signature being verified. Defaults to IETF
                     standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the  signature  being
                     verified.  Defaults to yes.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated  validity of the user IDs on the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature  veri-
                     fication.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show  only the primary user ID during signature verifica-
                     tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                     not shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable  PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                     close  information  on when and what signatures are veri-
                     fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the --auto-key-retrieve option.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise  the  trust in a signature to full if the signature
                     passes PKA validation. This option is only meaningful  if
                     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa
       --disable-large-rsa
              With  --generate-key  and  --batch,  enable  the creation of RSA
              secret keys as large as 8192 bit.  Note: 8192 bit is  more  than
              is  generally recommended.  These large keys don't significantly
              improve security, but they are more expensive to use, and  their
              signatures  and  certifications are larger.  This option is only
              available if the binary was build with large-secmem support.

       --enable-dsa2
       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              to  1024  bit.   This  is also the default with --openpgp.  Note
              that older versions of GnuPG also required this  flag  to  allow
              the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
              "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the  photo.  "%I"
              does  the  same,  except  the  file will not be deleted once the
              viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
              long  key  ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the exten-
              sion of the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME  type  of
              the  image  (e.g.  "image/jpeg"),  "%v" for the single-character
              calculated validity of the image being viewed (e.g.  "f"),  "%V"
              for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
              a base32 encoded hash of the user ID, and  "%%"  for  an  actual
              percent  sign.  If  neither %i or %I are present, then the photo
              will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage  -fork  -quiet  -title  'KeyID
              0x%k'  STDIN".  Note  that  if  your image viewer program is not
              secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  key-
              server  helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the com-
              piled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the PATH envi-
              ronment  variable.   Note,  that  on  W32  system  this value is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with  a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed  to  be  in
              the  GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is  to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
              --no-default-keyring.

              If the option --no-keyring has been used  no  keyrings  will  be
              used at all.

       --secret-keyring file
              This  is  an  obsolete  option and ignored.  All secret keys are
              stored in the 'private-keys-v1.d' directory below the GnuPG home
              directory.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate  file  as  the primary public keyring. This means that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used, the home directory defaults to  '~/.gnupg'.   It  is  only
              recognized  when  given  on the command line.  It also overrides
              any home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
              'GNUPGHOME'  or  (on  Windows  systems) by means of the Registry
              entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
              application.  In this case only this command line option is con-
              sidered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create
              an  empty  file named 'gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the
              tool 'gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is  then  that
              directory;  or,  if  'gpgconf.exe'  has  been installed directly
              below a directory named 'bin', its parent directory.   You  also
              need  to  make sure that the following directories exist and are
              writable:    'ROOT/home'    for    the    GnuPG     home     and
              'ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for internal cache files.

       --display-charset name
              Set  the  name of the native character set. This is used to con-
              vert some informational strings like  user  IDs  to  the  proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the char-
              acter set of data to be encrypted  or  signed;  GnuPG  does  not
              recode  user-supplied  data.  If  this  option  is not used, the
              default character set is determined from the current  locale.  A
              verbosity  level  of  3  shows the chosen set.  Valid values for
              name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (RFC-1489).

              utf-8  Bypass all translations  and  assume  that  the  OS  uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings
       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume  that  command line arguments are given as UTF-8 strings.
              The default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments  are
              encoded  in the character set as specified by --display-charset.
              These options affect all following arguments. Both  options  may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read  options  from  file  and  do not try to read them from the
              default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
              is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will  also
              prevent the creation of a '~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n
       --compress-level n
       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set  compression  level  to  n  for the ZIP and ZLIB compression
              algorithms. The default is to use the default compression  level
              of  zlib  (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets the compres-
              sion level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to  6
              as well). This is a different option from --compress-level since
              BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory  for  each  additional
              compression  level.   -z  sets both. A value of 0 for n disables
              compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This  alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
              also runs at half the speed. This is useful  under  extreme  low
              memory  circumstances when the file was originally compressed at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames
       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more  than
              one  dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace (rather
              than add to) the extension of an output filename to  avoid  this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level
       --no-ask-cert-level
              When making a key signature, prompt for a  certification  level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set  via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level   for
              information  on the specific levels and how they are used. --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as  to  how  carefully  you
              verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
              own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
              is  useful  for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key
              of a pseudonymous user.

              2 means you did casual verification of  the  key.  For  example,
              this  could  mean  that  you  verified  the  key fingerprint and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For  example,
              this  could  mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
              owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of  a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key,  and  finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3  are  just
              that:  examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any  signatures  with  a
              certification  level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which
              disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no  particular
              claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume  that  the specified key (which must be given as a full 8
              byte key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own  secret  keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
              (or one of them) online but still want to be able to  check  the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model {pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto}
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures
                     as used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the  default  trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              tofu

                     TOFU stands for Trust On First Use.  In this trust model,
                     the first time a key is seen, it is memorized.  If  later
                     another key with a user id with the same email address is
                     seen, both keys are marked as suspect.  In that case, the
                     next time either is used, a warning is displayed describ-
                     ing the conflict, why it might have occurred (either  the
                     user generated a new key and failed to cross sign the old
                     and new keys, the key is forgery, or a  man-in-the-middle
                     attack  is  being attempted), and the user is prompted to
                     manually confirm the validity of the key in question.

                     Because a potential attacker is able to control the email
                     address  and  thereby  circumvent  the conflict detection
                     algorithm by using an email address that  is  similar  in
                     appearance to a trusted email address, whenever a message
                     is verified, statistics  about  the  number  of  messages
                     signed  with  the key are shown.  In this way, a user can
                     easily identify attacks using fake keys for regular  cor-
                     respondents.

                     When compared with the Web of Trust, TOFU offers signifi-
                     cantly weaker security guarantees.  In  particular,  TOFU
                     only  helps ensure consistency (that is, that the binding
                     between a key and email address doesn't change).  A major
                     advantage  of TOFU is that it requires little maintenance
                     to use correctly.  To use the web of trust properly,  you
                     need  to  actively  sign  keys  and mark users as trusted
                     introducers.  This is a time-consuming process and  anec-
                     dotal  evidence  suggests  that  even  security-conscious
                     users rarely take the time  to  do  this  thoroughly  and
                     instead rely on an ad-hoc TOFU process.

                     In  the TOFU model, policies are associated with bindings
                     between keys and email  addresses  (which  are  extracted
                     from  user ids and normalized).  There are five policies,
                     which can be set manually using the --tofu-policy option.
                     The  default  policy can be set using the --tofu-default-
                     policy option.

                     The TOFU policies are: auto, good, unknown, bad and  ask.
                     The  auto policy is used by default (unless overridden by
                     --tofu-default-policy) and marks a binding as  marginally
                     trusted.  The good, unknown and bad policies mark a bind-
                     ing as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as  hav-
                     ing  trust  never,  respectively.   The unknown policy is
                     useful for just using TOFU to detect  conflicts,  but  to
                     never assign positive trust to a binding.  The final pol-
                     icy, ask prompts  the  user  to  indicate  the  binding's
                     trust.  If batch mode is enabled (or input is inappropri-
                     ate in the context), then the user is  not  prompted  and
                     the undefined trust level is returned.

              tofu+pgp
                     This  trust  model  combines  TOFU with the Web of Trust.
                     This is done by computing the trust level for each  model
                     and  then  taking the maximum trust level where the trust
                     levels are ordered as follows: unknown < undefined < mar-
                     ginal < fully < ultimate < expired < never.

                     By  setting --tofu-default-policy=unknown, this model can
                     be used to implement the web of trust  with  TOFU's  con-
                     flict  detection algorithm, but without its assignment of
                     positive  trust  values,  which  some  security-conscious
                     users don't like.

              direct Key  validity  is set directly by the user and not calcu-
                     lated via the Web of Trust.  This model is  solely  based
                     on  the key and does not distinguish user IDs.  Note that
                     when changing to another trust  model  the  trust  values
                     assigned to a key are transformed into ownertrust values,
                     which also indicate how you trust the owner of the key to
                     sign other keys.

              always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always
                     fully valid. You generally won't use this unless you  are
                     using  some  external validation scheme. This option also
                     suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed  with  signature
                     checks  when  there  is  no  evidence that the user ID is
                     bound to the key.  Note that this trust model still  does
                     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                     trust database says. This is the default model if such  a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate mechanisms
       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this option.  This happens when encrypting to an  email  address
              (in  the  "user@example.com" form), and there are no "user@exam-
              ple.com" keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any  num-
              ber  of the mechanisms listed below, in the order they are to be
              tried.  Instead of listing the  mechanisms  as  comma  delimited
              arguments,  the  option  may  also be given several times to add
              more mechanism.  The option --no-auto-key-locate or  the  mecha-
              nism "clear" resets the list.  The default is "local,wkd".

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in RFC-4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              dane   Locate a key using DANE, as specified in draft-ietf-dane-
                     openpgpkey-05.txt.

              wkd    Locate a key using the Web Key Directory protocol.

              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for  any  LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt
                     to locate the key  using  the  PGP  Universal  method  of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate  a  key  using whatever keyserver is defined using
                     the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in  the  --keyserver
                     option  may  be  used  here to query that particular key-
                     server.

              local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This  mechanism
                     allows the user to select the order a local key lookup is
                     done.  Thus using '--auto-key-locate local' is  identical
                     to --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag  disables  the standard local key lookup, done
                     before any of the mechanisms defined by  the  --auto-key-
                     locate  are tried.  The position of this mechanism in the
                     list does not matter.  It is not  required  if  local  is
                     also used.

              clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
                     mechanisms given in a config file.

       --auto-key-retrieve
       --no-auto-key-retrieve
              These options enable or disable the automatic retrieving of keys
              from a keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are
              not  on  the  local  keyring.   The  default  is  --no-auto-key-
              retrieve.

              If  the method "wkd" is included in the list of methods given to
              auto-key-locate, the signer's user ID is part of the  signature,
              and  the  option  --disable-signer-uid  is  not  used, the "wkd"
              method may also be used to retrieve a key.

              Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior  possible.
              Keyserver  or Web Key Directory operators can see which keys you
              request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand  new  key
              (which  you  naturally will not have on your local keyring), the
              operator can tell both your IP address and  the  time  when  you
              verified the signature.

       --keyid-format {none|short|0xshort|long|0xlong}
              Select  how to display key IDs.  "none" does not show the key ID
              at all but shows the fingerprint in a separate line.  "short" is
              the traditional 8-character key ID.  "long" is the more accurate
              (but less convenient) 16-character  key  ID.   Add  an  "0x"  to
              either  to include an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in
              0x99242560.  Note that this option  is  ignored  if  the  option
              --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              This option is deprecated - please use the --keyserver in 'dirm-
              ngr.conf' instead.

              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server  that  --receive-
              keys,  --send-keys,  and  --search-keys will communicate with to
              receive keys from, send keys to, and search  for  keys  on.  The
              format  of  the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'
              The scheme is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or com-
              patible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto"
              for the Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular instal-
              lation  of  GnuPG  may  have  other keyserver types available as
              well. Keyserver schemes are  case-insensitive.  After  the  key-
              server  name,  optional  keyserver  configuration options may be
              provided. These are the same as the  global  --keyserver-options
              from below, but apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most  keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is gener-
              ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net  uses  round  robin DNS to give a different
              keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options {name=value}
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the  keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
              opposite meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may  be
              used  here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or export-
              ing (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not  all  options
              are available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as  revoked.  Note  that
                     not  all  keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked and
                     unrevoked keys, and for such keyservers  this  option  is
                     meaningless.  Note  also that most keyservers do not have
                     cryptographic verification of  key  revocations,  and  so
                     turning  this option off may result in skipping keys that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that  are  marked on the keyserver as disabled. Note that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This is  an  obsolete  alias  for  the  option  auto-key-
                     retrieve.   Please  do  not use it; it will be removed in
                     future versions..

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When using --refresh-keys, if the key in question  has  a
                     preferred  keyserver  URL,  then  use that preferred key-
                     server to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-
                     retrieve  is  set, and the signature being verified has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                     server  to  fetch  the  key  from.  Note that this option
                     introduces a "web bug": The creator of the  key  can  see
                     when  the  keys  is  refreshed.   Thus this option is not
                     enabled by default.

              honor-pka-record
                     If --auto-key-retrieve is used, and the  signature  being
                     verified  has  a PKA record, then use the PKA information
                     to fetch the key. Defaults to "yes".

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as  potential  tar-
                     gets.  Note  that  this  option is not used with HKP key-
                     servers, as they do not support retrieving keys by subkey
                     id.

              timeout
                     Tell  the  keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                     to try and perform a keyserver action before  giving  up.
                     Note  that  performing  multiple actions at the same time
                     uses this timeout value per action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple keys via --receive-keys, the timeout
                     applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to  the
                     --receive-keys  command  as  a whole. Defaults to 30 sec-
                     onds.

              http-proxy=value
                     This option is deprecated.  Set the proxy to use for HTTP
                     and  HKP keyservers.  This overrides any proxy defined in
                     'dirmngr.conf'.

              verbose
                     This option has no more function since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              debug  This  option  has  no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              check-cert
                     This option has no more function since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

              ca-cert-file
                     This  option  has  no more function since GnuPG 2.1.  Use
                     the dirmngr configuration options instead.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)

       --tofu-default-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask}
              The default TOFU policy (defaults to auto).  For  more  informa-
              tion about the meaning of this option, see: [trust-model-tofu].

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not safe against write modi-
              fications, you can use this option to disable  the  caching.  It
              probably  does  not make sense to disable it because all kind of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
              lic keyring.

       --auto-check-trustdb
       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.   This  may  be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent
       --no-use-agent
              This is dummy option. gpg always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
              This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg.

       --agent-program file
              Specify an agent program to be used for secret  key  operations.
              The  default  value  is  determined  by running gpgconf with the
              option --list-dirs.  Note that the pipe symbol (|) is used for a
              regression  test suite hack and may thus not be used in the file
              name.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program to be used for keyserver access.   The
              default value is '/usr/bin/dirmngr'.

       --disable-dirmngr
              Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

       --no-autostart
              Do not start the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been
              started and its service is required.  This option is mostly use-
              ful on machines where the connection to gpg-agent has been redi-
              rected to another machines.   If  dirmngr  is  required  on  the
              remote  machine,  it  may  be  started  manually  using  gpgconf
              --launch dirmngr.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
              release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use
              this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable locking entirely. This option should  be  used  only  in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process is accessing those  files.  A  bootable  floppy  with  a
              stand-alone  encryption  system will probably use this. Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This option will cause write errors on the status FD to  immedi-
              ately  terminate the process. That should in fact be the default
              but it never worked this way and  thus  we  need  an  option  to
              enable  this,  so that the change won't break applications which
              close their end of a status fd connected pipe too  early.  Using
              this  option  along with --enable-progress-filter may be used to
              cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to  insert  a
              smartcard  gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't
              at all ask to insert  a  card  if  none  has  been  inserted  at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an application does not know about  the  smartcard  support  and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
              tions.  This makes random generation faster;  however  sometimes
              write  operations  are  not  desired. This option can be used to
              achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home  directory
              (--homedir)  permissions.  Note  that the permission checks that
              GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but  rather
              they  simply  warn  about certain common permission problems. Do
              not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system  is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to  place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
              suppress warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions  warn-
              ing may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem
       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse  to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no
              (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification
       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure  that  the
              cross  certification  "back  signature" on the subkey is present
              and valid.  This protects against a subtle attack  against  sub-
              keys  that  can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-certification
              for gpg.

       --expert
       --no-expert
              Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things  like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
              patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
              ables  certain  warning  messages about potentially incompatible
              actions. As the name implies, this option is for  experts  only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name
       -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option  or  --hidden-recipient
              is  not  specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name
       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key  ID  of  this  user's
              key.  This  option helps to hide the receiver of the message and
              is a limited countermeasure against traffic  analysis.  If  this
              option  or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --recipient-file file
       -f     This option is similar to --recipient except that it encrypts to
              a key stored in the given file.  file must be the name of a file
              containing exactly one key.  gpg assumes that the  key  in  this
              file is fully valid.

       --hidden-recipient-file file
       -F     This  option  is  similar  to  --hidden-recipient except that it
              encrypts to a key stored in the given file.  file  must  be  the
              name of a file containing exactly one key.  gpg assumes that the
              key in this file is fully valid.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is  intended  for  use  in  the
              options  file  and  may  be  used  with  your  own user-id as an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients  given  either  by use of --recipient or by the asked
              user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids  and
              even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same  as  --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
              den  "encrypt-to-self".  These keys are only used when there are
              other recipients given either by use of --recipient  or  by  the
              asked  user  id.   No trust checking is performed for these user
              ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable the use  of  all  --encrypt-to  and  --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.

       --group {name=value}
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
              grams.  Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or  --recipi-
              ent),  it  will  be  expanded  to the values specified. Multiple
              groups with the same name are automatically merged into a single
              group.

              The  values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description
              is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as  two  different  values. Note also there is only one level of
              expansion --- you cannot make an group that  points  to  another
              group.  When  used from the command line, it may be necessary to
              quote the argument to this option  to  prevent  the  shell  from
              treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name
       -u     Use  name  as  the key to sign with. Note that this option over-
              rides --default-key.

       --sender mbox
              This option has two purposes.  mbox must either  be  a  complete
              user id with a proper mail address or just a mail address.  When
              creating a signature this option tells gpg the user id of a  key
              used  to  make a signature if the key was not directly specified
              by a user id.  When verifying a signature the mbox  is  used  to
              restrict  the  information  printed by the TOFU code to matching
              user ids.

       --try-secret-key name
              For hidden recipients GPG needs to know  the  keys  to  use  for
              trial  decryption.   The  key  set  with --default-key is always
              tried first, but this is  often  not  sufficient.   This  option
              allows  setting  more  keys  to  be  used  for trial decryption.
              Although any valid user-id specification may be used for name it
              makes sense to use at least the long keyid to avoid ambiguities.
              Note that gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a lot keys to do
              the  trial  decryption.   If  you want to stop all further trial
              decryption you may use close-window button instead of the cancel
              button.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't  look  at  the key ID as stored in the message but try all
              secret keys in turn to  find  the  right  decryption  key.  This
              option  forces  the  behaviour  as  used by anonymous recipients
              (created by  using  --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and
              might  come  handy in case where an encrypted message contains a
              bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients
       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During decryption skip all anonymous  recipients.   This  option
              helps  in the case that people use the hidden recipients feature
              to hide there own encrypt-to key from others.   If  oneself  has
              many  secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt something which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is cur-
              rently not possible to decrypt a  message  which  includes  real
              anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor
       -a     Create  ASCII  armored  output.   The  default  is to create the
              binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file
       -o file
              Write output to file.  To write to stdout use - as the filename.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the number of  bytes  that  will  be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels of compression, it is possible that the  plaintext  of  a
              given  message  may  be  significantly  larger than the original
              OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such  messages,
              there  is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be
              generated before processing is forced to stop by the OS  limits.
              Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --input-size-hint n
              This  option  can be used to tell GPG the size of the input data
              in bytes.  n must be a positive base-10 number.  This option  is
              only  useful if the input is not taken from a file.  GPG may use
              this hint to optimize its buffer  allocation  strategy.   It  is
              also  used  by  the  --status-fd  line ``PROGRESS'' to provide a
              value for ``total'' if that is not available by other means.

       --key-origin string[,url]
              gpg can track the origin of a key. Certain origins  are  implic-
              itly  known  (e.g. keyserver, web key directory) and set.  For a
              standard import the origin of the keys imported can be set  with
              this option.  To list the possible values use "help" for string.
              Some origins can store an optional url argument.  That  URL  can
              appended to string after a comma.

       --import-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              importing keys. Options can be prepended with a  `no-'  to  give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              keep-ownertrust
                     Normally  possible  still existing ownertrust values of a
                     key are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
                     desirable  so  that a formerly deleted key does not auto-
                     matically gain an ownertrust values merely due to import.
                     On  the other hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import
                     a trusted set of keys again but keeping already  assigned
                     ownertrust  values.   This  can be achieved by using this
                     option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least  give  you  back  one
                     subkey.  Defaults  to  no for regular --import and to yes
                     for keyserver --receive-keys.

              import-show
              show-only
                     Show a listing of the key as imported right before it  is
                     stored.   This  can be combined with the option --dry-run
                     to only look at keys; the option show-only is a  shortcut
                     for this combination.

              import-export
                     Run the entire import code but instead of storing the key
                     to the local keyring write it to the output.  The  export
                     options  export-pka  and  export-dane  affect the output.
                     This option can be used to remove all invalid parts  from
                     a key without the need to store it.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After import, compact (remove all signatures  except  the
                     self-signature)  any  user  IDs from the new key that are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that  are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
                     issued by keys that are not present on the keyring.  This
                     option  is  the  same  as  running the --edit-key command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              repair-keys. After import, fix various problems with the
                     keys.  For example, this reorders signatures, and  strips
                     duplicate signatures.  Defaults to yes.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

              restore
              import-restore
                     Import in key restore mode.  This imports all data  which
                     is  usually  skipped  during  import; including all GnuPG
                     specific data.  All other contradicting options are over-
                     ridden.

       --import-filter {name=expr}
       --export-filter {name=expr}
              These  options  define an import/export filter which are applied
              to the  imported/exported  keyblock  right  before  it  will  be
              stored/written.   name  defines  the type of filter to use, expr
              the expression to evaluate.  The  option  can  be  used  several
              times which then appends more expression to the same name.

              The available filter types are:

              keep-uid
                     This  filter will keep a user id packet and its dependent
                     packets in the keyblock if the  expression  evaluates  to
                     true.

              drop-subkey
                     This  filter  drops the selected subkeys.  Currently only
                     implemented for --export-filter.

              drop-sig
                     This filter drops the selected  key  signatures  on  user
                     ids.  Self-signatures are not considered.  Currently only
                     implemented for --import-filter.

       For the syntax of the expression see the chapter "FILTER  EXPRESSIONS".
       The property names for the expressions depend on the actual filter type
       and are indicated in the following table.

       The available properties are:

              uid    A string with the user id.  (keep-uid)

              mbox   The addr-spec part of a user id with mailbox or the empty
                     string.  (keep-uid)

              key_algo
                     A number with the public key algorithm of a key or subkey
                     packet.  (drop-subkey)

              key_created
              key_created_d
                     The first is the timestamp a public key or subkey  packet
                     was  created.  The second is the same but given as an ISO
                     string, e.g. "2016-08-17". (drop-subkey)

              primary
                     Boolean indicating whether the user  id  is  the  primary
                     one.  (keep-uid)

              expired
                     Boolean  indicating  whether  a user id (keep-uid), a key
                     (drop-subkey), or a signature (drop-sig) expired.

              revoked
                     Boolean indicating whether a user id (keep-uid) or a  key
                     (drop-subkey) has been revoked.

              disabled
                     Boolean  indicating  whether  a  primary key is disabled.
                     (not used)

              secret Boolean indicating whether a key or subkey  is  a  secret
                     one.  (drop-subkey)

              sig_created
              sig_created_d
                     The  first  is  the timestamp a signature packet was cre-
                     ated.  The second is the same but given as  an  ISO  date
                     string, e.g. "2016-08-17". (drop-sig)

              sig_algo
                     A  number  with  the  public key algorithm of a signature
                     packet. (drop-sig)

              sig_digest_algo
                     A number with the digest algorithm of a signature packet.
                     (drop-sig)

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting keys.  Options can be prepended with a `no-'  to  give
              the opposite meaning.  The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not generally useful unless a shared  keyring  scheme  is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include  attribute  user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.
                     Not including attribute user IDs is useful to export keys
                     that are going to be used by an OpenPGP program that does
                     not accept attribute user IDs.  Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker information that was marked as
                     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

              backup
              export-backup
                     Export  for  use as a backup.  The exported data includes
                     all data which is needed to restore the key or keys later
                     with  GnuPG.   The format is basically the OpenPGP format
                     but enhanced with GnuPG specific data.  All other contra-
                     dicting options are overridden.

              export-clean
                     Compact  (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key
                     being exported if the user IDs are not usable.  Also,  do
                     not  export  any  signatures  that  are  not usable. This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present  on  the keyring. This option is the same as run-
                     ning the --edit-key command "clean" before export  except
                     that  the local copy of the key is not modified. Defaults
                     to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures  except the most recent self-signature on each user
                     ID. This option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key
                     command  "minimize"  before  export except that the local
                     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

              export-pka
                     Instead of outputting the key material output PKA records
                     suitable  to  put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is
                     printed before each record to allow diverting the records
                     to the corresponding zone file.

              export-dane
                     Instead  of  outputting  the  key material output OpenPGP
                     DANE records suitable to put into  DNS  zone  files.   An
                     ORIGIN  line  is  printed  before  each  record  to allow
                     diverting the records to the corresponding zone file.

       --with-colons
              Print key listings delimited by colons.  Note  that  the  output
              will  be  encoded  in  UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
              of this format are documented in the file  'doc/DETAILS',  which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do  not  merge  primary  user ID and primary key in --with-colon
              listing  mode  and  print  all  timestamps  as   seconds   since
              1970-01-01.   Since  GnuPG  2.0.10, this mode is always used and
              thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --legacy-list-mode
              Revert to the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This  only  affects
              the  human  readable  output and not the machine interface (i.e.
              --with-colons).  Note that the legacy  format  does  not  convey
              suitable information for elliptic curves.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.

       --with-subkey-fingerprint
              If a fingerprint is printed for the  primary  key,  this  option
              forces  printing of the fingerprint for all subkeys.  This could
              also be achieved by using the --with-fingerprint  twice  but  by
              using  this option along with keyid-format "none" a compact fin-
              gerprint is printed.

       --with-icao-spelling
              Print the ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in  addition  to  the
              hex digits.

       --with-keygrip
              Include  the keygrip in the key listings.  In --with-colons mode
              this is implicitly enable for secret keys.

       --with-key-origin
              Include the locally held information  on  the  origin  and  last
              update of a key in a key listing.  In --with-colons mode this is
              always printed.  This data is currently experimental  and  shall
              not be considered part of the stable API.

       --with-wkd-hash
              Print  a Web Key Directory identifier along with each user ID in
              key listings.  This is an experimental feature and semantics may
              change.

       --with-secret
              Include  info  about  the presence of a secret key in public key
              listings done with --with-colons.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options

       -t, --textmode
       --no-textmode
              Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP  canoni-
              cal  text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also sets
              the necessary flags to inform the recipient that  the  encrypted
              or  signed  data is text and may need its line endings converted
              back to whatever the local system uses. This  option  is  useful
              when  communicating  between  two  platforms that have different
              line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
              --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

       --force-v3-sigs
       --no-force-v3-sigs

       --force-v4-certs
       --no-force-v4-certs
              These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.1.

       --force-mdc
              Force  the use of encryption with a modification detection code.
              This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a  block-
              size  greater  than  64  bits),  or if all of the recipient keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.

       --disable-signer-uid
              By default the user ID of the signing key  is  embedded  in  the
              data  signature.  As of now this is only done if the signing key
              has been specified with local-user using a mail  address.   This
              information  can  be helpful for verifier to locate the key; see
              option --auto-key-retrieve.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use  gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely  over-
              ride  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
              GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all  recipi-
              ents.   The  most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used
              for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use  gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely  over-
              ride  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as
              GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all  recipi-
              ents.   The  most highly ranked digest algorithm in this list is
              also used when signing without encryption (e.g. --clear-sign  or
              --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
              gpg --version to get a list of  available  algorithms,  and  use
              none  to  set  no  preference  at  all.  This allows the user to
              safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  pref-
              erences,  as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by
              all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
              this  list is also used when there are no recipient keys to con-
              sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use name as the cipher algorithm for symmetric encryption with a
              passphrase  if  --personal-cipher-preferences  and --cipher-algo
              are not given.  The default is AES-128.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the  passphrases
              for symmetric encryption.  The default is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled. If
              n is 0 a plain passphrase (which is in general not  recommended)
              will  be used, a 1 adds a salt (which should not be used) to the
              passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the  whole  process  a
              number of times (see --s2k-count).

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times the passphrases mangling for symmetric
              encryption is repeated.  This value may range between  1024  and
              65011712  inclusive.   The  default  is inquired from gpg-agent.
              Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712  range  are  legal
              and  if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up to the
              nearest legal value.  This option is only meaningful  if  --s2k-
              mode is set to the default of 3.

   Compliance options

       These  options  control  what  GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these
       options may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of  this
       is  nearly  always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

       --gnupg
              Use standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP  behav-
              ior  (see  --openpgp),  but with some additional workarounds for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
              is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may
              be useful to override  a  different  compliance  option  in  the
              gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset  all  packet,  cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
              behavior. Use this option to reset  all  previous  options  like
              --s2k-*,  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo  and  --compress-algo to
              OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-4880
              behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc4880bis
              Enable experimental features from proposed updates to  RFC-4880.
              This  option  can  be  used  in addition to the other compliance
              options.  Warning:  The  behavior  may  change  with  any  GnuPG
              release  and  created keys or data may not be usable with future
              GnuPG versions.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to  strict  RFC-2440
              behavior.

       --pgp6 Set  up  all  options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This
              restricts you to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA  plugin  is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
              and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also  disables
              --throw-keyids,  and  making  signatures with signing subkeys as
              PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
              identical  to  --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded  to  add  AES128,  AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
              is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
              of  PGP,  so  all  this  does  is disable --throw-keyids and set
              --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for  the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

       --compliance string
              This  option  can  be  used instead of one of the options above.
              Valid values for string are the above option names (without  the
              double  dash) and possibly others as shown when using "help" for
              value.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do

       -n
       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes the behaviour of some commands. This is  like  --dry-run
              but  different in some cases. The semantic of this option may be
              extended in the future.  Currently  it  only  skips  the  actual
              decryption  pass  and  therefore  enables  a fast listing of the
              encryption keys.

       -i
       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may  be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No  debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and  2  may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater
                     than 8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The  creation
                     of  hash  tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is
                     used.

       How these messages are mapped to the  actual  debugging  flags  is  not
       specified  and may change with newer releases of this program. They are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be  given
              in  C  syntax (e.g. 0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag
              names.  To get a list of all supported  flags  the  single  word
              "help" can be used.

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-iolbf
              Set stdout into line buffered mode.  This option is only honored
              when given on the command line.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
              back  or  forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

              If  you  suffix  epoch  with an exclamation mark (!), the system
              time will appear to be frozen at the specified time.

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows fron-
              tends  to  display  a progress indicator while gpg is processing
              larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See  the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same  as  --status-fd, except the status data is written to file
              file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file
       --logger-file file
              Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written  to  file
              file.  Use 'socket://' to log to s socket.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write  attribute  subpackets  to  the file descriptor n. This is
              most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status  messages
              are  needed  to  separate  out  the  various subpackets from the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written  to
              file file.

       --comment string
       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string in cleartext signatures and ASCII
              armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behavior  is
              not  to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated multiple
              times to get multiple comment strings. --no-comments removes all
              comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single com-
              ment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail  programs
              wrapping  such  lines.   Note that comment lines, like all other
              header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version
       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII  armored  output.
              If  given once only the name of the program and the major number
              is emitted, given twice the minor is also emitted, given  thrice
              the  micro  is  added,  and given four times an operating system
              identification is  also  emitted.   --no-emit-version  (default)
              disables the version line.

       --sig-notation {name=value}
       --cert-notation {name=value}
       -N, --set-notation {name=value}
              Put  the  name  value  pair into the signature as notation data.
              name must consist only of printable characters  or  spaces,  and
              must  contain  a  '@' character in the form keyname@domain.exam-
              ple.com (substituting the appropriate keyname and  domain  name,
              of  course).   This  is  to  help  prevent pollution of the IETF
              reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@'
              check.  value may be any printable string; it will be encoded in
              UTF-8, so you should check that your  --display-charset  is  set
              correctly.  If you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!), the
              notation data will be flagged  as  critical  (rfc4880:5.2.3.16).
              --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
              tion sets a notation for key signatures (certifications). --set-
              notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will be expanded into the key ID of the key being  signed,  "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
              gerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key  ID  of  the
              key  making  the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key
              making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key  mak-
              ing  the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fin-
              gerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the  signature,
              "%c"  into  the  signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when  making  a  key  signature  (certification), and %c is only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string
       --cert-policy-url string
       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL  for  signatures  (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
              If  you  prefix  it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
              icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
              you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename  which  is  stored  inside  messages.
              This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
              of the file being encrypted.  Using the empty string for  string
              effectively removes the filename from the output.

       --for-your-eyes-only
       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set  the  `for  your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes
              GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the --output  option  is
              given,  and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed Tempest-
              resistant font to display the  message.  This  option  overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename
       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try  to  create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This
              can be a dangerous  option  as  it  enables  overwriting  files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use  name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the com-
              mand --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not  used  the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
              stored with the key. In general, you do not  want  to  use  this
              option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
              sonal-cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the  same
              thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the message digest algorithm. Running the program
              with the command --version yields  a  list  of  supported  algo-
              rithms.  In  general,  you  do not want to use this option as it
              allows you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.  --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
              sion. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is  used  by  PGP.
              "bzip2"  is  a  more modern compression scheme that can compress
              some things better than zip or zlib, but at  the  cost  of  more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used,  the
              default  behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to
              see which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else  fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB  may  give better compression results than ZIP, as the com-
              pression window size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may  give  even
              better  compression  results  than that, but will use a signifi-
              cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
              ing.  This  may  be  significant in low memory situations. Note,
              however, that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP  compression.
              Using  any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the mes-
              sage unreadable with PGP. In general, you do  not  want  to  use
              this  option  as  it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences is the safe  way  to  accomplish
              the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message digest algorithm used when signing a
              key. Running the program with the  command  --version  yields  a
              list  of  supported  algorithms.  Be aware that if you choose an
              algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP  implementations
              do  not,  then some users will not be able to use the key signa-
              tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
              will  not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
              get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The  given
              name  will  not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
              still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids
       --no-throw-keyids
              Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted  messages.  This
              helps  to  hide  the  receivers  of the message and is a limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social
              engineering  anyone who is able to decrypt the message can check
              whether one of the other recipients is the  one  he  suspects.])
              On  the  receiving side, it may slow down the decryption process
              because all available secret keys must  be  tried.   --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they  can  be  used for patch files. You should not send such an
              armored file via email because all spaces and line  endings  are
              hashed  too.  You  can  not use this option for data which has 5
              dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have  this.
              A  special  armor  header  line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines
       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because some mailers change  lines  starting  with  "From  "  to
              ">From  "  it is good to handle such lines in a special way when
              creating cleartext signatures to prevent the  mail  system  from
              breaking  the  signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default.  --no-escape-from-lines  dis-
              ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify  how  many  times  gpg  will request a new passphrase be
              repeated.  This is useful for  helping  memorize  a  passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read  the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line
              will be read from file descriptor n. If you use  0  for  n,  the
              passphrase  will  be  read  from STDIN. This can only be used if
              only one passphrase is supplied.

              Note that this passphrase is only used if the option --batch has
              also been given.  This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
              read from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only  one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is of questionable security if other users can read  this  file.
              Don't  use  this  option  if  you  can avoid it.  Note that this
              passphrase is only used if the  option  --batch  has  also  been
              given.  This is different from GnuPG version 1.x.

       --passphrase string
              Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very  questionable
              security  on  a  multi-user system. Don't use this option if you
              can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is  only  used  if  the
              option  --batch  has  also  been  given.  This is different from
              GnuPG version 1.x.

       --pinentry-mode mode
              Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

              default
                     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

              ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

              cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

              error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

              loopback
                     Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.   Note  that  in
                     contrast to Pinentry the user is not prompted again if he
                     enters a bad password.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
              If  this  option  is  enabled,  user  input  on questions is not
              expected from the TTY but from the  given  file  descriptor.  It
              should   be   used  together  with  --status-fd.  See  the  file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use
              it.

       --command-file file
              Same  as  --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
              file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid
       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
              self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new  one.  This option should only be used in very special envi-
              ronments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard  format  of
              user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG  normally  checks that the timestamps associated with keys
              and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a  sig-
              nature  seems  to  be  older than the key due to clock problems.
              This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG  normally  does  not select and use subkeys created in the
              future.  This option allows  the  use  of  such  keys  and  thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless there is some clock problem. See also  --ignore-time-con-
              flict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The  ASCII  armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
              against transmission errors. Occasionally the CRC  gets  mangled
              somewhere  on  the  transmission  channel but the actual content
              (which is protected by the OpenPGP  protocol  anyway)  is  still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This  option  changes  a MDC integrity protection failure into a
              warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially  corrupt,
              but  it  is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the
              corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection  fail-
              ure  may also mean that the message was tampered with intention-
              ally by an attacker.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
              Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms  are  normally
              rejected  with  an  ``invalid  digest algorithm'' message.  This
              option allows the verification of signatures made with such weak
              algorithms.  MD5 is the only digest algorithm considered weak by
              default.  See also --weak-digest to reject  other  digest  algo-
              rithms.

       --weak-digest name
              Treat  the  specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made
              over weak digests algorithms are normally rejected. This  option
              can  be supplied multiple times if multiple algorithms should be
              considered weak.  See also --allow-weak-digest-algos to  disable
              rejection  of  weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and
              does not need to be listed explicitly.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do not add the default keyrings to the list  of  keyrings.  Note
              that  GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use
              this option and do not provide alternate keyrings via  --keyring
              or  --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default pub-
              lic or secret keyrings.

       --no-keyring
              Do not add use any keyrings even if specified as options.

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may be used  to  make
              the  decryption  faster  if  the  signature  verification is not
              needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons)  and
              print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes  the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
              achieved by leaving some parts empty.  Some  applications  don't
              need  the  user  ID and the trust information given in the list-
              ings. By using this options they can get a faster  listing.  The
              exact  behaviour  of  this option may change in future versions.
              If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
              might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one  message.  See  --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to  reveal
              the  content  of  one  specific message without compromising all
              messages ever encrypted for one secret key.

              You can also use this option if you receive an encrypted message
              which is abusive or offensive, to prove to the administrators of
              the messaging system that the ciphertext transmitted corresponds
              to  an  inappropriate  plaintext so they can take action against
              the offending user.

       --override-session-key string
       --override-session-key-fd fd
              Don't use the public key but the session key  string  respective
              the  session  key  taken  from  the  first  line  read from file
              descriptor fd.  The format of this string is the same as the one
              printed  by --show-session-key. This option is normally not used
              but comes handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content
              of an encrypted message; using this option you can do this with-
              out handing out the secret key.  Note that using --override-ses-
              sion-key  may  reveal the session key to all local users via the
              global process table.

       --ask-sig-expire
       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time.  If
              this  option  is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time set via
              --default-sig-expire is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables  this
              option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The  default  expiration  time  to use for signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter  d  (for  days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
              years) (for example "2m"  for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
              years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
              "0".

       --ask-cert-expire
       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration  time.  If
              this  option  is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time set via
              --default-cert-expire  is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire  disables
              this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter  d  (for  days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
              years) (for example "2m"  for  two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
              years),  or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
              "0".

       --default-new-key-algo string
              This option can be used to change the default algorithms for key
              generation.   Note that the advanced key generation commands can
              always be used to specify a key algorithm directly.  Please con-
              sult the source code to learn the syntax of string.

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP messages contained in a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
              pared  to  deal with multiple messages being processed together,
              so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG  prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning:  Do  not use this option unless you need it as a tempo-
              rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This option enables a mode in which filenames of the form '-&n',
              where  n  is  a  non-negative  decimal number, refer to the file
              descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring  back  to  user
              read/write  only.  Use  this option only if you really know what
              you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
              list  is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
              used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
              form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.  See  the  file
              'doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source  distribution  for the details of
              which configuration items may be listed. --list-config  is  only
              usable with --with-colons set.

       --list-gcrypt-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of Libgcrypt.

       --gpgconf-list
              This  command  is  similar  to --list-config but in general only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
              figuration  file  and  returns with failure if the configuration
              file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
              a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos
       --no-show-photos
              Causes   --list-keys,   --list-signatures,   --list-public-keys,
              --list-secret-keys, and verifying a signature  to  also  display
              the  photo  ID  attached  to  the key, if any. See also --photo-
              viewer.  These  options  are  deprecated.   Use   --list-options
              [no-]show-photos    and/or   --verify-options   [no-]show-photos
              instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display the keyring name at the head of  key  listings  to  show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation
       --no-show-notation
              Show signature notations in the  --list-signatures  or  --check-
              signatures listings as well as when verifying a signature with a
              notation in it. These options are deprecated. Use --list-options
              [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url
       --no-show-policy-url
              Show policy URLs in the --list-signatures or  --check-signatures
              listings as well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL
              in  it.  These  options  are  deprecated.   Use   --list-options
              [no-]show-policy-url  and/or  --verify-options [no-]show-policy-
              url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clear-sign file
              make a cleartext signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile
       gpg --verify sigfile [datafile]
              Verify the signature of the file but  do  not  output  the  data
              unless  requested.   The second form is used for detached signa-
              tures, where sigfile is the  detached  signature  (either  ASCII
              armored  or binary) and datafile are the signed data; if this is
              not given, the name of the file holding the signed data is  con-
              structed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or ".sig") of sig-
              file or by asking the user for  the  filename.   If  the  option
              --output  is  also  used  the signed data is written to the file
              specified by that option; use - to write the signed data to std-
              out.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for  gpgsm.   Here  is  the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low  64  bits  of  its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is
              just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
              should be used.

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20  byte  version
              fingerprint  is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the
              certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
              This  avoids  any  ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm also accepts colons  between  each  pair  of  hexadecimal  digits
       because  this  is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509 finger-
       prints.  gpg also allows the use of the space separated  SHA-1  finger-
       print as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This  is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address  in  the  usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match on an email address.
              This  is  indicated  by  prefixing  the search string with an @.
              This uses a substring search but considers only the mail address
              (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

         @heinrichh

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This  is  indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string  printed  by  gpgsm --list-keys because that one has been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string.

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash and then directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded  DN  of
              the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert of the issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed  by  the  hexadecimal
              representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip.
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex  digits
              of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate  this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       . and + prefixes
              These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored at the
              end  and  for  a word search mode.  They are not yet implemented
              and using them is undefined.

              Please note that we have reused the hash mark  identifier  which
              was  used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-
              id.  It is not anymore used and there should be no conflict when
              used with X.509 stuff.

              Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
              possible to map them back to the original encoding,  however  we
              don't  have  to  do  this  because  our key database stores this
              encoding as meta data.

FILTER EXPRESSIONS
       The options --import-filter and --export-filter  use  expressions  with
       this syntax (square brackets indicate an optional part and curly braces
       a repetition, white space between the elements are allowed):

                  [lc] {[{flag}] PROPNAME op VALUE [lc]}

       The name of a property (PROPNAME) may only consist of  letters,  digits
       and  underscores.   The description for the filter type describes which
       properties are defined.  If an undefined property is used it  evaluates
       to  the empty string.  Unless otherwise noted, the VALUE must always be
       given and may not be the empty string.  No quoting is defined  for  the
       value,  thus  the value may not contain the strings && or ||, which are
       used as logical connection operators.  The  flag  --  can  be  used  to
       remove this restriction.

       Numerical values are computed as long int; standard C notation applies.
       lc is the logical connection operator; either && for a  conjunction  or
       ||  for  a  disjunction.   A  conjunction is assumed at the begin of an
       expression.  Conjunctions have higher precedence than disjunctions.  If
       VALUE  starts  with  one of the characters used in any op a space after
       the op is required.

       The supported operators (op) are:

       =~     Substring must match.

       !~     Substring must not match.

       =      The full string must match.

       <>     The full string must not match.

       ==     The numerical value must match.

       !=     The numerical value must not match.

       <=     The numerical value of the field must be LE than the value.

       <      The numerical value of the field must be LT than the value.

       >      The numerical value of the field must be GT than the value.

       >=     The numerical value of the field must be GE than the value.

       -le    The string value of the field must be less  or  equal  than  the
              value.

       -lt    The string value of the field must be less than the value.

       -gt    The string value of the field must be greater than the value.

       -ge    The  string value of the field must be greater or equal than the
              value.

       -n     True if value is not empty (no value allowed).

       -z     True if value is empty (no value allowed).

       -t     Alias for "PROPNAME != 0" (no value allowed).

       -f     Alias for "PROPNAME == 0" (no value allowed).

       Values for flag must be space separated.  The supported flags are:

       --     VALUE spans to the end of the expression.

       -c     The string match in this part is done case-sensitive.

       The filter options concatenate several specifications for a  filter  of
       the same type.  For example the four options in this example:

                 --import-option keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa"
                 --import-option keep-uid="&& uid !~ Test"
                 --import-option keep-uid="|| uid =~ Alpha"
                 --import-option keep-uid="uid !~ Test"

       which is equivalent to

                 --import-option \
                  keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa" && uid !~ Test" || uid =~ Alpha" && "uid !~ Test"

       imports  only  the  user  ids of a key containing the strings "Alfa" or
       "Alpha" but not the string "test".

FILES
       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's
       operation.  Unless  noted, they are expected in the current home direc-
       tory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on  startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not be entered and the option  may  not  be  abbreviated.   This
              default  name  may  be  changed  on the command line (see: [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg' so that newly created users start
       up with a working configuration.  For existing  users  a  small  helper
       script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They
       all live in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).  Only
       the gpg program may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg
              This  is the default home directory which is used if neither the
              environment variable  GNUPGHOME  nor  the  option  --homedir  is
              given.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
              The  public  keyring  using  a  different  format.  This file is
              shared with gpgsm.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              The lock file for 'pubring.kbx'.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              A secret keyring as used by GnuPG versions before  2.1.   It  is
              not used by GnuPG 2.1 and later.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated
              File indicating that a migration to GnuPG 2.1 has been done.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better to backup the ownertrust values (see:  [option  --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This  is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation
              certificates.  The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP  finger-
              print  of  the  respective key.  It is suggested to backup those
              certificates and if the primary private key is not stored on the
              disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can
              access theses files is able to  revoke  the  corresponding  key.
              You  may want to print them out.  You should backup all files in
              this directory and take care to keep this backup closed away.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              This variable is obsolete; it was used by GnuPG versions  before
              2.1.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS
       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart from its use by GNU, it is used  in  the  W32  version  to
              override  the  language selection done through the Registry.  If
              used and set to a valid and available  language  name  (langid),
              the    file    with    the    translation    is    loaded   from
              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry is tried and as last resort the native  Windows  locale
              system is used.

BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is necessary to lock memory pages. Locking memory  pages  prevents  the
       operating   system   from  writing  memory  pages  (which  may  contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message  about  insecure  memory your operating system supports locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note  also  that  some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
       ``suspend to disk'' (also known as ``safe  sleep''  or  ``hibernate'').
       This  writes  all  memory to disk before going into a low power or even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect  the  saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before you report a bug you should first search the  mailing  list  ar-
       chives  for  similar  problems  and second check whether such a bug has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at https://bugs.gnupg.org.

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If  GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site, the
       command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a  menu  struc-
       ture and an index.

GnuPG 2.2.1                       2017-09-18                            GPG(1)

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