LDD(1)                     Linux Programmer's Manual                    LDD(1)

       ldd - print shared object dependencies

       ldd [option]... file...

       ldd  prints the shared objects (shared libraries) required by each pro-
       gram or shared object specified on the command line.  An example of its
       use and output is the following:

         $ ldd /bin/ls
                 linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffcc3563000)
                 libselinux.so.1 => /lib64/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007f87e5459000)
                 libcap.so.2 => /lib64/libcap.so.2 (0x00007f87e5254000)
                 libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f87e4e92000)
                 libpcre.so.1 => /lib64/libpcre.so.1 (0x00007f87e4c22000)
                 libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f87e4a1e000)
                 /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00005574bf12e000)
                 libattr.so.1 => /lib64/libattr.so.1 (0x00007f87e4817000)
                 libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f87e45fa000)

       In  the  usual  case,  ldd  invokes  the  standard  dynamic linker (see
       ld.so(8)) with the LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS environment variable set  to
       1.   This  causes  the  dynamic linker to inspect the program's dynamic
       dependencies, and find (according to the rules described  in  ld.so(8))
       and  load the objects that satisfy those dependencies.  For each depen-
       dency, ldd displays the location of the matching object and the  (hexa-
       decimal)  address  at which it is loaded.  (The linux-vdso and ld-linux
       shared dependencies are special; see vdso(7) and ld.so(8).)

       Be aware that in some circumstances (e.g., where the program  specifies
       an  ELF  interpreter  other than ld-linux.so), some versions of ldd may
       attempt to obtain the dependency information by attempting to  directly
       execute  the  program, which may lead to the execution of whatever code
       is defined in the program's ELF interpreter, and perhaps  to  execution
       of the program itself.  (Until glibc version 2.27,
        .  the upstream ldd implementation did this for example, although most
       distributions provided a modified version that did not.)

       Thus, you should never employ ldd on  an  untrusted  executable,  since
       this  may  result in the execution of arbitrary code.  A safer alterna-
       tive when dealing with untrusted executables is:

           $ objdump -p /path/to/program | grep NEEDED

       Note, however, that this alternative shows only the direct dependencies
       of  the  executable,  while ldd shows the entire dependency tree of the

              Print the version number of ldd.

       -v, --verbose
              Print all information, including, for example, symbol versioning

       -u, --unused
              Print unused direct dependencies.  (Since glibc 2.3.4.)

       -d, --data-relocs
              Perform relocations and report any missing objects (ELF only).

       -r, --function-relocs
              Perform  relocations  for  both  data objects and functions, and
              report any missing objects or functions (ELF only).

       --help Usage information.

       ldd does not work on a.out shared libraries.

       ldd does not work with some extremely old  a.out  programs  which  were
       built  before  ldd  support was added to the compiler releases.  If you
       use ldd on one of these programs, the program will attempt to run  with
       argc = 0 and the results will be unpredictable.

       pldd(1), sprof(1), ld.so(8), ldconfig(8)

       This  page  is  part of release 4.14 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at

                                  2017-09-15                            LDD(1)

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