mysqlbinlog(1)



MYSQLBINLOG(1)              MariaDB Database System             MYSQLBINLOG(1)

NAME
       mysqlbinlog - utility for processing binary log files

SYNOPSIS
       mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The server's binary log consists of files containing "events" that
       describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these
       files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use
       the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the
       contents of relay log files written by a slave server in a replication
       setup because relay logs have the same format as binary logs.

       Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

       For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named
       binlog.000003, use this command:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003

       The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For
       statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement,
       the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the
       statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For
       row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL
       statement.

       Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional
       information. For example:

           # at 141
           #100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
             Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0

       In the first line, the number following at indicates the starting
       position of the event in the binary log file.

       The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the
       statement started on the server where the event originated. For
       replication, this timestamp is propagated to slave servers.  server id
       is the server_id value of the server where the event originated.
       end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the
       end position of the current event + 1).  thread_id indicates which
       thread executed the event.  exec_time is the time spent executing the
       event, on a master server. On a slave, it is the difference of the end
       execution time on the slave minus the beginning execution time on the
       master. The difference serves as an indicator of how much replication
       lags behind the master.  error_code indicates the result from executing
       the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

       The output from mysqlbinlog can be re-executed (for example, by using
       it as input to mysql) to redo the statements in the log. This is useful
       for recovery operations after a server crash. For other usage examples,
       see the discussion later in this section.

       Normally, you use mysqlbinlog to read binary log files directly and
       apply them to the local MariaDB server. It is also possible to read
       binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server
       option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options
       can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options
       are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user; they
       are ignored except when you also use the --read-from-remote-server
       option.

       mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] option file
       groups.

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --base64-output[=value]

           This option determines when events should be displayed encoded as
           base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. The option has these
           allowable values (not case sensitive):

           o   AUTO ("automatic") or UNSPEC ("unspecified") displays BINLOG
               statements automatically when necessary (that is, for format
               description events and row events). This is the default if no
               --base64-output option is given.

                   Note
                   Automatic BINLOG display is the only safe behavior if you
                   intend to use the output of mysqlbinlog to re-execute
                   binary log file contents. The other option values are
                   intended only for debugging or testing purposes because
                   they may produce output that does not include all events in
                   executable form.

           o   ALWAYS displays BINLOG statements whenever possible. This is
               the implied value if the option is given as --base64-output
               without a value. Both ALWAYS and not giving a value are
               deprecated.

           o   NEVER causes BINLOG statements not to be displayed.
               mysqlbinlog exits with an error if a row event is found that
               must be displayed using BINLOG.

           o   DECODE-ROWS specifies to mysqlbinlog that you intend for row
               events to be decoded and displayed as commented SQL statements
               by also specifying the --verbose option. Like NEVER,
               DECODE-ROWS suppresses display of BINLOG statements, but unlike
               NEVER, it does not exit with an error if a row event is found.
               The --base64-output can be given as --base64-output or
               --skip-base64-output (with the sense of AUTO or NEVER).

               For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and
               --verbose on row event output, see the section called
               "MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT DISPLAY".

       o   --binlog-row-event-max-size=path

           The directory where character sets are installed.

       o   --character-sets-dir=path

           The directory where character sets are installed.

       o   --database=db_name, -d db_name

           This option causes mysqlbinlog to output entries from the binary
           log (local log only) that occur while db_name has been selected as
           the default database by USE.

           The --database option for mysqlbinlog is similar to the
           --binlog-do-db option for mysqld, but can be used to specify only
           one database. If --database is given multiple times, only the last
           instance is used.

           The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or
           row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the
           effects of --binlog-do-db depend on whether statement-based or
           row-based logging is in use.

           Statement-based logging. The --database option works as follows:

           o   While db_name is the default database, statements are output
               whether they modify tables in db_name or a different database.

           o   Unless db_name is selected as the default database, statements
               are not output, even if they modify tables in db_name.

           o   There is an exception for CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE, and
               DROP DATABASE. The database being created, altered, or dropped
               is considered to be the default database when determining
               whether to output the statement.
               Suppose that the binary log was created by executing these
               statements using statement-based-logging:

                   INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(100);
                   INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(200);
                   USE test;
                   INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(101);
                   INSERT INTO t1 (i)      VALUES(102);
                   INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(201);
                   USE db2;
                   INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(103);
                   INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(202);
                   INSERT INTO t2 (j)      VALUES(203);

               mysqlbinlog --database=test does not output the first two
               INSERT statements because there is no default database. It
               outputs the three INSERT statements following USE test, but not
               the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

               mysqlbinlog --database=db2 does not output the first two INSERT
               statements because there is no default database. It does not
               output the three INSERT statements following USE test, but does
               output the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

               Row-based logging.  mysqlbinlog outputs only entries that
               change tables belonging to db_name. The default database has no
               effect on this. Suppose that the binary log just described was
               created using row-based logging rather than statement-based
               logging.  mysqlbinlog --database=test outputs only those
               entries that modify t1 in the test database, regardless of
               whether USE was issued or what the default database is.  If a
               server is running with binlog_format set to MIXED and you want
               it to be possible to use mysqlbinlog with the --database
               option, you must ensure that tables that are modified are in
               the database selected by USE. (In particular, no cross-database
               updates should be used.)

                   Note
                   This option did not work correctly for mysqlbinlog with
                   row-based logging prior to MySQL 5.1.37.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysqlbinlog.trace'.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --defaults-extra-file=name

           Read this file after the global files are read.

       o   --defaults-file=name

           Only read default options from the given file.

       o   --default-auth=name

           Default authentication client-side plugin to use.

       o   --disable-log-bin, -D

           Disable binary logging. This is useful for avoiding an endless loop
           if you use the --to-last-log option and are sending the output to
           the same MariaDB server. This option also is useful when restoring
           after a crash to avoid duplication of the statements you have
           logged.

           This option requires that you have the SUPER privilege. It causes
           mysqlbinlog to include a SET sql_log_bin = 0 statement in its
           output to disable binary logging of the remaining output. The SET
           statement is ineffective unless you have the SUPER privilege.

       o   --force-if-open

           Force if binlog was not closed properly. Defaults to on; use
           --skip-force-if-open to disable.

       o   --force-read, -f

           With this option, if mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it
           does not recognize, it prints a warning, ignores the event, and
           continues. Without this option, mysqlbinlog stops if it reads such
           an event.

       o   --hexdump, -H

           Display a hex dump of the log in comments, as described in the
           section called "MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT". The hex output can be
           helpful for replication debugging.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Get the binary log from the MariaDB server on the given host.

       o   --local-load=path, -l path

           Prepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified
           directory.

       o   --no-defaults

           Don't read default options from any option file.

       o   --offset=N, -o N

           Skip the first N entries in the log.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlbinlog prompts
           for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           Directory for client-side plugins.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program argument list from all option files and exit.

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for connecting to a remote server, or
           0 for default to, in order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT,
           /etc/services, built-in default (3306).

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want.

       o   --open-files-limit=NUM

           Sets the open_files_limit variable, which is used to reserve file
           descriptors for mysqlbinlog.

       o   --read-from-remote-server, -R

           Read the binary log from a MariaDB server rather than reading a
           local log file. Any connection parameter options are ignored unless
           this option is given as well. These options are --host, --password,
           --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user.

           This option requires that the remote server be running. It works
           only for binary log files on the remote server, not relay log
           files.

       o   --result-file=name, -r name

           Direct output to the given file.

       o   --rewrite-db=name, -r name

           Updates to a database with a different name than the original.
           Example: rewrite-db='from->to'. For events that are binlogged as
           statements, rewriting the database constitutes changing a
           statement's default database from db1 to db2. There is no statement
           analysis or rewrite of any kind, that is, if one specifies
           "db1.tbl" in the statement explicitly, that occurrence won't be
           changed to "db2.tbl". Row-based events are rewritten correctly to
           use the new database name. Filtering (e.g. with --database=name)
           happens after the database rewrites have been performed. If you use
           this option on the command line and ">" has a special meaning to
           your command interpreter, quote the value (e.g. --rewrite-
           db="oldname->newname".

       o   --server-id=id

           Display only those events created by the server having the given
           server ID.

       o   --set-charset=charset_name

           Add a SET NAMES charset_name statement to the output to specify the
           character set to be used for processing log files.

       o   --short-form, -s

           Display only the statements contained in the log, no extra info and
           no row-based events. This is for testing only, and should not be
           used in production systems. If you want to suppress base64-output,
           consider using --base64-output=never instead.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --start-datetime=datetime

           Start reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp
           equal to or later than the datetime argument. The datetime value is
           relative to the local time zone on the machine where you run
           mysqlbinlog. The value should be in a format accepted for the
           DATETIME or TIMESTAMP data types. For example:

               shell> mysqlbinlog --start-datetime="2014-12-25 11:25:56" binlog.000003

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery.

       o   --start-position=N, -j N

           Start reading the binary log at the first event having a position
           equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the first log
           file named on the command line.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery.

       o   --stop-datetime=datetime

           Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp
           equal to or later than the datetime argument. This option is useful
           for point-in-time recovery. See the description of the
           --start-datetime option for information about the datetime value.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery.

       o   --stop-position=N

           Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a position
           equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the last log
           file named on the command line.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery.

       o   --to-last-log, -t

           Do not stop at the end of the requested binary log from a MariaDB
           server, but rather continue printing until the end of the last
           binary log. If you send the output to the same MariaDB server, this
           may lead to an endless loop, so this option requires
           --read-from-remote-server.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MariaDB username to use when connecting to a remote server.

       o   --verbose, -v

           Reconstruct row events and display them as commented SQL
           statements. If this option is given twice, the output includes
           comments to indicate column data types and some metadata.

           For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose
           on row event output, see the section called "MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT
           DISPLAY".

       o   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       You can also set the following variable by using --var_name=value
       syntax:

       o   open_files_limit

           Specify the number of open file descriptors to reserve.

       You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute
       the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to
       recover from a crash when you have an old backup. For example:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p

       Or:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p

       You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead,
       if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove
       statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After
       editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it
       as input to the mysql program:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
           shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
           shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile

       When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it
       displays only those events with an offset in the binary log greater
       than or equal to a given position (the given position must match the
       start of one event). It also has options to stop and start when it sees
       an event with a given date and time. This enables you to perform
       point-in-time recovery using the --stop-datetime option (to be able to
       say, for example, "roll forward my databases to how they were today at
       10:30 a.m.").

       If you have more than one binary log to execute on the MariaDB server,
       the safe method is to process them all using a single connection to the
       server. Here is an example that demonstrates what may be unsafe:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!

       Processing binary logs this way using different connections to the
       server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE
       TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that
       uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the
       server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process
       attempts to use the table, the server reports "unknown table."

       To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the
       contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way
       to do so:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p

       Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then
       process the file:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"

       mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA INFILE
       operation without the original data file.  mysqlbinlog copies the data
       to a temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statement that
       refers to the file. The default location of the directory where these
       files are written is system-specific. To specify a directory
       explicitly, use the --local-load option.

       Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA INFILE statements to LOAD DATA
       LOCAL INFILE statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and
       the server that you use to process the statements must be configured
       with the LOCAL capability enabled.

           Warning
           The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not
           automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually
           execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files
           yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can
           be found in the temporary file directory and have names like
           original_file_name-#-#.

MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT
       The --hexdump option causes mysqlbinlog to produce a hex dump of the
       binary log contents:

           shell> mysqlbinlog --hexdump master-bin.000001

       The hex output consists of comment lines beginning with #, so the
       output might look like this for the preceding command:

           /*!40019 SET @@session.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;
           /*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;
           # at 4
           #051024 17:24:13 server id 1  end_log_pos 98
           # Position  Timestamp   Type   Master ID        Size      Master Pos    Flags
           # 00000004 9d fc 5c 43   0f   01 00 00 00   5e 00 00 00   62 00 00 00   00 00
           # 00000017 04 00 35 2e 30 2e 31 35  2d 64 65 62 75 67 2d 6c |..5.0.15.debug.l|
           # 00000027 6f 67 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |og..............|
           # 00000037 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................|
           # 00000047 00 00 00 00 9d fc 5c 43  13 38 0d 00 08 00 12 00 |.......C.8......|
           # 00000057 04 04 04 04 12 00 00 4b  00 04 1a                |.......K...|
           #       Start: binlog v 4, server v 5.0.15-debug-log created 051024 17:24:13
           #       at startup
           ROLLBACK;

       Hex dump output currently contains the elements in the following list.
       This format is subject to change. (For more information about binary
       log format, see
       http://forge.mysql.com/wiki/MySQL_Internals_Binary_Log.)

       o   Position: The byte position within the log file.

       o   Timestamp: The event timestamp. In the example shown, '9d fc 5c 43'
           is the representation of '051024 17:24:13' in hexadecimal.

       o   Type: The event type code. In the example shown, '0f' indicates a
           FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT. The following table lists the possible
           type codes.

           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |Type | Name                     | Meaning                         |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |00   | UNKNOWN_EVENT            | This event should never be      |
           |     |                          | present in the log.             |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |01   | START_EVENT_V3           | This indicates the start of a   |
           |     |                          | log file written by MySQL 4 or  |
           |     |                          | earlier.                        |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |02   | QUERY_EVENT              | The most common type of events. |
           |     |                          | These contain statements        |
           |     |                          | executed on the master.         |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |03   | STOP_EVENT               | Indicates that master has       |
           |     |                          | stopped.                        |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |04   | ROTATE_EVENT             | Written when the master         |
           |     |                          | switches to a new log file.     |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |05   | INTVAR_EVENT             | Used for AUTO_INCREMENT values  |
           |     |                          | or when the LAST_INSERT_ID()    |
           |     |                          | function is used in the         |
           |     |                          | statement.                      |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |06   | LOAD_EVENT               | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE in    |
           |     |                          | MySQL 3.23.                     |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |07   | SLAVE_EVENT              | Reserved for future use.        |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |08   | CREATE_FILE_EVENT        | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE       |
           |     |                          | statements. This indicates the  |
           |     |                          | start of execution of such a    |
           |     |                          | statement. A temporary file is  |
           |     |                          | created on the slave. Used in   |
           |     |                          | MySQL 4 only.                   |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |09   | APPEND_BLOCK_EVENT       | Contains data for use in a LOAD |
           |     |                          | DATA INFILE statement. The data |
           |     |                          | is stored in the temporary file |
           |     |                          | on the slave.                   |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0a   | EXEC_LOAD_EVENT          | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE       |
           |     |                          | statements. The contents of the |
           |     |                          | temporary file is stored in the |
           |     |                          | table on the slave.  Used in    |
           |     |                          | MySQL 4 only.                   |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0b   | DELETE_FILE_EVENT        | Rollback of a LOAD DATA INFILE  |
           |     |                          | statement. The temporary file   |
           |     |                          | should be deleted on the slave. |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0c   | NEW_LOAD_EVENT           | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE in    |
           |     |                          | MySQL 4 and earlier.            |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0d   | RAND_EVENT               | Used to send information about  |
           |     |                          | random values if the RAND()     |
           |     |                          | function is used in the         |
           |     |                          | statement.                      |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0e   | USER_VAR_EVENT           | Used to replicate user          |
           |     |                          | variables.                      |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |0f   | FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT | This indicates the start of a   |
           |     |                          | log file written by MySQL 5 or  |
           |     |                          | later.                          |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |10   | XID_EVENT                | Event indicating commit of an   |
           |     |                          | XA transaction.                 |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |11   | BEGIN_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT   | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE       |
           |     |                          | statements in MySQL 5 and       |
           |     |                          | later.                          |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |12   | EXECUTE_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT | Used for LOAD DATA INFILE       |
           |     |                          | statements in MySQL 5 and       |
           |     |                          | later.                          |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |13   | TABLE_MAP_EVENT          | Information about a table       |
           |     |                          | definition. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 |
           |     |                          | and later.                      |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |14   | PRE_GA_WRITE_ROWS_EVENT  | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that should be created. Used in |
           |     |                          | MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.          |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |15   | PRE_GA_UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that needs to be updated. Used  |
           |     |                          | in MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.       |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |16   | PRE_GA_DELETE_ROWS_EVENT | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that should be deleted. Used in |
           |     |                          | MySQL 5.1.5 to 5.1.17.          |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |17   | WRITE_ROWS_EVENT         | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that should be created. Used in |
           |     |                          | MySQL 5.1.18 and later.         |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |18   | UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT        | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that needs to be updated. Used  |
           |     |                          | in MySQL 5.1.18 and later.      |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |19   | DELETE_ROWS_EVENT        | Row data for a single table     |
           |     |                          | that should be deleted. Used in |
           |     |                          | MySQL 5.1.18 and later.         |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
           |1a   | INCIDENT_EVENT           | Something out of the ordinary   |
           |     |                          | happened. Added in MySQL        |
           |     |                          | 5.1.18.                         |
           +-----+--------------------------+---------------------------------+

       o   Master ID: The server ID of the master that created the event.

       o   Size: The size in bytes of the event.

       o   Master Pos: The position of the next event in the original master
           log file.

       o   Flags: 16 flags. Currently, the following flags are used. The
           others are reserved for future use.

           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
           |Flag | Name                        | Meaning                      |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
           |01   | LOG_EVENT_BINLOG_IN_USE_F   | Log file correctly closed.   |
           |     |                             | (Used only in                |
           |     |                             | FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT.)   |
           |     |                             | If this flag is set (if the  |
           |     |                             | flags are, for example, '01  |
           |     |                             | 00') in a                    |
           |     |                             | FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT,    |
           |     |                             | the log file has not been    |
           |     |                             | properly closed. Most        |
           |     |                             | probably this is because of  |
           |     |                             | a master crash (for example, |
           |     |                             | due to power failure).       |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
           |02   |                             | Reserved for future use.     |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
           |04   | LOG_EVENT_THREAD_SPECIFIC_F | Set if the event is          |
           |     |                             | dependent on the connection  |
           |     |                             | it was executed in (for      |
           |     |                             | example, '04 00'), for       |
           |     |                             | example, if the event uses   |
           |     |                             | temporary tables.            |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+
           |08   | LOG_EVENT_SUPPRESS_USE_F    | Set in some circumstances    |
           |     |                             | when the event is not        |
           |     |                             | dependent on the default     |
           |     |                             | database.                    |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------+

MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT DISPLAY
       The following examples illustrate how mysqlbinlog displays row events
       that specify data modifications. These correspond to events with the
       WRITE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, and DELETE_ROWS_EVENT type codes.
       The --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose options may be used to
       affect row event output.

       Suppose that the server is using row-based binary logging and that you
       execute the following sequence of statements:

           CREATE TABLE t
           (
             id   INT NOT NULL,
             name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
             date DATE NULL
           ) ENGINE = InnoDB;
           START TRANSACTION;
           INSERT INTO t VALUES(1, 'apple', NULL);
           UPDATE t SET name = 'pear', date = '2009-01-01' WHERE id = 1;
           DELETE FROM t WHERE id = 1;
           COMMIT;

       By default, mysqlbinlog displays row events encoded as base-64 strings
       using BINLOG statements. Omitting extraneous lines, the output for the
       row events produced by the preceding statement sequence looks like
       this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258     Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356     Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442     Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;

       To see the row events as comments in the form of "pseudo-SQL"
       statements, run mysqlbinlog with the --verbose or -v option. The output
       will contain lines beginning with ###:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258     Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356     Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442     Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'

       Specify --verbose or -v twice to also display data types and some
       metadata for each column. The output will contain an additional comment
       following each column change:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -vv log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258     Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356     Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442     Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */

       You can tell mysqlbinlog to suppress the BINLOG statements for row
       events by using the --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS option. This is similar
       to --base64-output=NEVER but does not exit with an error if a row event
       is found. The combination of --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose
       provides a convenient way to see row events only as SQL statements:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258     Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356     Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442     Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'

           Note
           You should not suppress BINLOG statements if you intend to
           re-execute mysqlbinlog output.

       The SQL statements produced by --verbose for row events are much more
       readable than the corresponding BINLOG statements. However, they do not
       correspond exactly to the original SQL statements that generated the
       events. The following limitations apply:

       o   The original column names are lost and replaced by @N, where N is a
           column number.

       o   Character set information is not available in the binary log, which
           affects string column display:

           o   There is no distinction made between corresponding binary and
               nonbinary string types (BINARY and CHAR, VARBINARY and VARCHAR,
               BLOB and TEXT). The output uses a data type of STRING for
               fixed-length strings and VARSTRING for variable-length strings.

           o   For multi-byte character sets, the maximum number of bytes per
               character is not present in the binary log, so the length for
               string types is displayed in bytes rather than in characters.
               For example, STRING(4) will be used as the data type for values
               from either of these column types:

                   CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET latin1
                   CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ucs2

           o   Due to the storage format for events of type UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT,
               UPDATE statements are displayed with the WHERE clause preceding
               the SET clause.

       Proper interpretation of row events requires the information from the
       format description event at the beginning of the binary log. Because
       mysqlbinlog does not know in advance whether the rest of the log
       contains row events, by default it displays the format description
       event using a BINLOG statement in the initial part of the output.

       If the binary log is known not to contain any events requiring a BINLOG
       statement (that is, no row events), the --base64-output=NEVER option
       can be used to prevent this header from being written.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2008-2010 Sun Microsystems, Inc.,
       2010-2015 MariaDB Foundation

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

NOTES
        1. Bug#42941
           http://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=42941

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MariaDB Knowledge Base,
       available online at https://mariadb.com/kb/

AUTHOR
       MariaDB Foundation (http://www.mariadb.org/).

MariaDB 10.1                      14/12/2015                    MYSQLBINLOG(1)

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