ncal(1)



CAL(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   CAL(1)

NAME
     cal, ncal -- displays a calendar and the date of Easter

SYNOPSIS
     cal [-31jy] [-A number] [-B number] [-d yyyy-mm] [[month] year]
     cal [-31j] [-A number] [-B number] [-d yyyy-mm] -m month [year]
     ncal [-C] [-31jy] [-A number] [-B number] [-d yyyy-mm] [[month] year]
     ncal [-C] [-31j] [-A number] [-B number] [-d yyyy-mm] -m month [year]
     ncal [-31bhjJpwySM] [-A number] [-B number] [-H yyyy-mm-dd] [-d yyyy-mm]
         [-s country_code] [[month] year]
     ncal [-31bhJeoSM] [-A number] [-B number] [-d yyyy-mm] [year]

DESCRIPTION
     The cal utility displays a simple calendar in traditional format and ncal
     offers an alternative layout, more options and the date of Easter.  The
     new format is a little cramped but it makes a year fit on a 25x80 termi-
     nal.  If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed.

     The options are as follows:

     -h      Turns off highlighting of today.

     -J      Display Julian Calendar, if combined with the -o option, display
             date of Orthodox Easter according to the Julian Calendar.

     -e      Display date of Easter (for western churches).

     -j      Display Julian days (days one-based, numbered from January 1).

     -m month
             Display the specified month.  If month is specified as a decimal
             number, appending 'f' or 'p' displays the same month of the fol-
             lowing or previous year respectively.

     -o      Display date of Orthodox Easter (Greek and Russian Orthodox
             Churches).

     -p      Print the country codes and switching days from Julian to Grego-
             rian Calendar as they are assumed by ncal.  The country code as
             determined from the local environment is marked with an asterisk.

     -s country_code
             Assume the switch from Julian to Gregorian Calendar at the date
             associated with the country_code.  If not specified, ncal tries
             to guess the switch date from the local environment or falls back
             to September 2, 1752.  This was when Great Britain and her
             colonies switched to the Gregorian Calendar.

     -w      Print the number of the week below each week column.

     -y      Display a calendar for the specified year. This option is implied
             when a year but no month are specified on the command line.

     -3      Display the previous, current and next month surrounding today.

     -1      Display only the current month. This is the default.

     -A number
             Months to add after. The specified number of months is added to
             the end of the display. This is in addition to any date range
             selected by the -y, -3, or -1 options. For example, ``cal -y -B2
             -A2'' shows everything from November of the previous year to Feb-
             ruary of the following year. Negative numbers are allowed, in
             which case the specified number of months is subtracted. For
             example, ``cal -y -B-6'' shows July to December. And ``cal -A11''
             simply shows the next 12 months.

     -B number
             Months to add before. The specified number of months is added to
             the beginning of the display. See -A for examples.

     -C      Completely switch to cal mode. For cal like output only, use -b
             instead.

     -N      Switch to ncal mode.

     -d yyyy-mm
             Use yyyy-mm as the current date (for debugging of date selec-
             tion).

     -H yyyy-mm-dd
             Use yyyy-mm-dd as the current date (for debugging of highlight-
             ing).

     -M      Weeks start on Monday.

     -S      Weeks start on Sunday.

     -b      Use oldstyle format for ncal output.

     A single parameter specifies the year (1-9999) to be displayed; note the
     year must be fully specified: ``cal 89'' will not display a calendar for
     1989.  Two parameters denote the month and year; the month is either a
     number between 1 and 12, or a full or abbreviated name as specified by
     the current locale.  Month and year default to those of the current sys-
     tem clock and time zone (so ``cal -m 8'' will display a calendar for the
     month of August in the current year).

     Not all options can be used together. For example, the options -y, -3,
     and -1 are mutually exclusive. If inconsistent options are given, the
     later ones take precedence over the earlier ones.

     A year starts on January 1.

SEE ALSO
     calendar(3), strftime(3)

HISTORY
     A cal command appeared in Version 5 AT&T UNIX.  The ncal command appeared
     in FreeBSD 2.2.6.  The output of the cal command is supposed to be bit
     for bit compatible to the original Unix cal command, because its output
     is processed by other programs like CGI scripts, that should not be bro-
     ken. Therefore it will always output 8 lines, even if only 7 contain
     data. This extra blank line also appears with the original cal command,
     at least on Solaris 8

AUTHORS
     The ncal command and manual were written by Wolfgang Helbig
     <helbig@FreeBSD.org>.

BUGS
     The assignment of Julian-Gregorian switching dates to country codes is
     historically naive for many countries.

     Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will
     give varying results.

BSD                             March 14, 2009                             BSD

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