RNEWS(1)                  InterNetNews Documentation                  RNEWS(1)

       rnews - Inject individual articles and UUCP batches into INN

       rnews [-abdNUv] [-h host] [-P port] [-rS server] [file]

       rnews injects either individual articles or UUCP-style article batches
       into an INN server.  It submits articles via IHAVE and is suitable for
       injecting articles received from other sources; local postings should
       generally use inews(1) instead.  It is also used to process spooled
       messages created by, for example, nnrpd while innd is not available.

       The message is read from file if given, spooled files (with the -U
       flag) or standard input if no file is given.  Articles are sent to the
       server given in the -r or -S command line options if given, otherwise
       to the server set via nnrpdposthost in inn.conf, otherwise to the local

       When sent over UUCP, Usenet articles are typically collected in a
       single batch to reduce the UUCP overhead.  Batches can also be
       compressed to reduce communication time.  If the input to rnews does
       not begin with the characters "#!", it is taken to be a single news
       article; otherwise, the first line of the input is interpreted as a
       batch command.

       If the batch command is:

           #! rnews <number>

       then the next <number> bytes (starting with the next line) are read as
       a news article.  After that article is processed, the next line is
       again treated as a batch command.

       If the command is:

           #! cunbatch

       then the rest of the input is fed to "gzip -d" to uncompress it, and
       then the resulting uncompressed output is re-read as if it were the
       original input to rnews.  A compressed batch should therefore start
       with this line and contain a batch of articles separated by "#! rnews"
       lines and then compressed with compress(1).  (Batches compressed with
       gzip(1) should instead use "gunbatch" as the batch command; INN just
       uses gzip rather than compress because it can handle compress-style
       compression but is more widely available, due to old patent issues,
       than compress.)

       Otherwise, if the command is any other word and the -a flag is not
       given, rnews will try to execute a program with that name, looking for
       it in the directory pathbin/rnews.libexec.  The rest of the batch will
       be fed to that program's standard input, and the standard output from
       the program will be treated as if it were the original input to rnews.
       INN comes with three such standard batch processors:

         It invokes bzip2 and should be used for batches compressed with

         It undoes an ASCII encoding to recover the original binary compressed
         stream and then decompresses it as explained above.

         It invokes gzip and should be used for batches compressed with gzip.

       -a  By default, rnews looks for additional unpackers in the
           rnews.libexec sub-directory of pathbin (as set in inn.conf).  If -a
           is given, no additional batch processor will be used; only "rnews"
           and "cunbatch" will be recognized as valid batch commands.

       -b  By default, rnews will log and discard any articles that are
           rejected by the server or cannot be parsed by rnews for some reason
           (such as a missing header).  If -b is given, rejected articles will
           also be backed up in the bad sub-directory of pathincoming (as set
           in inn.conf).

       -d  If -d is given, rnews will log via syslog the message-ID and the
           Path header value of each article rejected as a duplicate by the

       -h host
           If -h is given, rnews will log the message ID and host via syslog
           for each article that it offers to the server.  This is used in
           conjunction with a UUCP feed to get a log of the messages received
           via that feed.  This will also be done if the environment variable
           UU_MACHINE is set, but will only be done if host is not an empty
           string.  (You can therefore turn off logging even if UU_MACHINE
           will be set by passing the flag "-h ''" to rnews.)

       -N  Normally, if unpacking the input batch fails, it is re-spooled to
           pathincoming for another attempt later.  If the -N flag is given,
           no such re-spooling is done and rnews will instead exit with status
           9 if unpacking fails.

       -P port
           Use port as the server port to connect to rather than nnrpdpostport
           (as set in inn.conf).  Note that this value is only used if rnews
           does not connect to the local server (in other words, when -r or -S
           is given or nnrpdposthost is set).

       -r server, -S server
           -r and -S are synonymous.  If either is given, articles will be
           sent to server rather than using the local server, overriding also
           the setting of nnrpdposthost in inn.conf.

       -U  If the server is not available, both rnews and nnrpd will spool
           posts to new files in the pathincoming directory (as specified in
           inn.conf).  When rnews is invoked with the -U option, it scans that
           directory and processes all spooled messages found there whose
           filenames do not begin with ".", attempting to send them to the
           server again.  It's a good idea to run this periodically out of
           cron to pick up any articles spooled due to temporary server

       -v  Enable verbose mode, with more traces, notably logging the reason
           why articles are rejected by the server.

       rnews cannot process articles that have embedded nul characters in
       them.  (Neither can the rest of INN at present.)

       Written by Rich $alz <rsalz@uunet.uu.net> for InterNetNews.  Rewritten
       in POD by Russ Allbery <eagle@eyrie.org>.

       $Id: rnews.pod 10382 2020-05-24 10:24:37Z iulius $

       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), inn.conf(5), innd(8), nnrpd(8).

INN 2.6.4                         2020-05-25                          RNEWS(1)

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