RRDGRAPH_EXAMPLES(1) rrdtool RRDGRAPH_EXAMPLES(1)
rrdgraph_examples - Examples for rrdtool graph
rrdtool graph /home/httpd/html/test.png --img-format PNG
followed by any of the examples below
For your convenience some of the commands are explained here by using
detailed examples. They are not always cut-and-paste ready because
comments are intermixed with the examples.
Data with multiple resolutions
--end now --start end-120000s --width 400
LINE1:ds0b#00CCFF:"resolution 1800 seconds per interval\l"
LINE1:ds0c#FF00FF:"resolution 7200 seconds per interval\l"
Nicely formatted legend section
Note: consolidation occurs here.
Note: 10 spaces to move text to the right
Note: the column titles have to be as wide as the columns
Offsetting a line on the y-axis
Depending on your needs you can do this in two ways:
o Offset the data, then graph this
Note: this will also influence any other command that uses "data"
LINE1:data#FF0000:"Data with offset"
o Graph the original data, with an offset
Note: no color in the first line so it is not visible
Note: the second line gets stacked on top of the first one
LINE1:mydata#FF0000:"Data with offset":STACK
Drawing dashed lines
Also works for HRULE and VRULE
o default style: - - - - -
o more fancy style with offset: - - --- - --- -
LINE1:data#FF0000:"another dashed line":dashes=15,5,5,10:dash-offset=10
Last four weeks: --start end-4w --end 00:00
January 2001: --start 20010101 --end start+31d
January 2001: --start 20010101 --end 20010201
Last hour: --start end-1h
Last 24 hours: <nothing at all>
Yesterday: --end 00:00
Viewing the current and previous week together
--end now --start end-1w
Shift the data forward by one week (604800 seconds)
[ more of the usual VDEF and CDEF stuff if you like ]
Aberrant Behaviour Detection
If the specialized function RRAs exist for aberrant behavior detection,
they can be used to generate the graph of a time series with confidence
bands and failures.
rrdtool graph example.png \
TICK:fail#ffffa0:1.0:"Failures\: Average bits out" \
LINE2:scaledobs#0000ff:"Average bits out" \
LINE1:scaledupper#ff0000:"Upper Confidence Bound: Average bits out" \
LINE1:scaledlower#ff0000:"Lower Confidence Bound: Average bits out"
This example generates a graph of the data series in blue (LINE2 with
the scaledobs virtual data source), confidence bounds in red
(scaledupper and scaledlower virtual data sources), and potential
failures (i.e. potential aberrant aberrant behavior) marked by vertical
yellow lines (the fail data source).
The raw data comes from an AVERAGE RRA, the finest resolution of the
observed time series (one consolidated data point per primary data
point). The predicted (or smoothed) values are stored in the HWPREDICT
RRA. The predicted deviations (think standard deviation) values are
stored in the DEVPREDICT RRA. Finally, the FAILURES RRA contains
indicators, with 1 denoting a potential failure.
All of the data is rescaled to bits (instead of Octets) by multiplying
by 8. The confidence bounds are computed by an offset of 2 deviations
both above and below the predicted values (the CDEFs upper and lower).
Vertical lines indicated potential failures are graphed via the TICK
graph element, which converts non-zero values in an RRA into tick
marks. Here an axis-fraction argument of 1.0 means the tick marks span
the entire y-axis, and hence become vertical lines on the graph.
The choice of 2 deviations (a scaling factor) matches the default used
internally by the FAILURES RRA. If the internal value is changed (see
rrdtune), this graphing command should be changed to be consistent.
A note on data reduction:
The rrdtool graph command is designed to plot data at a specified
temporal resolution, regardless of the actually resolution of the data
in the RRD file. This can present a problem for the specialized
consolidation functions which maintain a one-to-one mapping between
primary data points and consolidated data points. If a graph insists on
viewing the contents of these RRAs on a coarser temporal scale, the
graph command tries to do something intelligent, but the confidence
bands and failures no longer have the same meaning and may be
rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works. rrdgraph_data
describes DEF,CDEF and VDEF in detail. rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN
language used in the xDEF statements. rrdgraph_graph page describes
all the graph and print functions.
Program by Tobias Oetiker <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt <email@example.com> with
corrections and/or additions by several people
1.7.0 2018-06-30 RRDGRAPH_EXAMPLES(1)