# rsync(1)


rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files

DESCRIPTION
Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
sions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
mirroring)

GENERAL
Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote

Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a  daemon
is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon or a
remote-shell spawned process.

SETUP
See the file README for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
not  by  rsync  itself  (exactly the same as all other posix-style pro-
grams).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
bolic  links,  devices,  attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
ing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
ing  commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting
of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
destination  don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a  par-
ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.

The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
these examples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
is not as easy to use as the first method.

If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For
instance:

rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as  the  trans-
port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it  with  a  remote  shell
except that:

o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
nect.

o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
connections to port 873.

You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
ost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
into  a  system  (other  than  what  is  already  required   to   allow
remote-shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a
remote shell and  then  spawning  a  single-use  "daemon"  server  that
expects  to  read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.
This can be useful if you want to  encrypt  a  daemon-style  transfer's
data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used
by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine  and  configure  a
normal  rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from
"localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
this functionality.)  For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
--rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
dling  incoming  socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
figurations).

If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
Rsync  always  sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
confuse someone when the files are transferred  in  a  different  order
than what was given on the command-line.

If  you  need  a  particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
--delay-updates  (which  doesn't  affect the sorted transfer order, but
does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife's home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
"arvidsjaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar-
gets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
mand:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY
Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
to the detailed description below for a complete description.

-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
--msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
-q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
--no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
-c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
-a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
-r, --recursive             recurse into directories
-R, --relative              use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
-b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace               update destination files in-place
--append                append data onto shorter files
--append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
-d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-E, --executability         preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
-A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
-X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
-o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
-g, --group                 preserve group
--devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
--specials              preserve special files
-D                          same as --devices --specials
-t, --times                 preserve modification times
-O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
--fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
-S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
--preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
-n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
-W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
-x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
-B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
-e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing              skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                   an alias for --delete-during
--delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--partial               keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
-m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
-I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only             skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
-T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
-y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
-z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
--compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
--skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
-C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
-f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
-F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
-0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
-s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                 give some file-transfer stats
-8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress              show progress during transfer
-P                          same as --partial --progress
-i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
--list-only             list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m     Stop rsync at year-month-dayThour:minute
--time-limit=MINS       Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
--version               print version number
(-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
are accepted:

--daemon                run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach             do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
-h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +
letter)  options.  The full list of the available options are described
below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a
short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is  only  listed
after  the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can  either  use  the  form
--option=param  or  replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
need to be quoted in some manner for it to  survive  the  shell's  com-
mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo  will  not  change  the
tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

--help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
without any other args.

--version
print the rsync version number and exit.

-v, --verbose
This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
-v will give you information about what files are  being  trans-
ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
only be used if you are debugging rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-
bosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
the daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
information on what is output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note   that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output  when
--msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining  to  I/O
and buffer debugging.

This  option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
too old to understand  them).   See  also  the  "max  verbosity"
caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--msgs2stderr
This  option  changes  rsync  to send all its output directly to
stderr rather than to send messages to the client side  via  the
protocol  (which  normally  outputs  info  messages via stdout).
This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing
the  data  sent  via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
can change what is being tested.  The option does not affect the
remote  side of a transfer without using --remote-option -- e.g.
-M--msgs2stderr.  Also keep in mind  that  a  daemon  connection
does  not  have  a  stderr  channel to send messages back to the
client side, so if you are doing any  daemon-transfer  debugging
using   this   option,  you  should  start  up  a  daemon  using
--no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the  daemon
side.

This  option  has  the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
line-buffered so that the merging of the output  of  3  programs
happens in a more readable manner.

-q, --quiet
This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
from  the  remote  server.  This  option is useful when invoking
rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client
at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also  affects  the  list  of
modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the
daemon.

-I, --ignore-times
Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be
updated.

--size-only
This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
transferring  files  with  either  a  changed  size or a changed
last-modified time to just looking for files that  have  changed
in  size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
exactly.

--modify-window
When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
--modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
second).

-c, --checksum
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
can slow things down significantly.

The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
file need to be updated?" check.

For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
MD4.

-a, --archive
This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
is not implied.

Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
"no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
--no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
(--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
-a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
-a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
--files-from option for more details).

-r, --recursive
--dirs (-d).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
ries  have  been  completed.  This incremental scan only affects
our recursion algorithm, and does  not  change  a  non-recursive
transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
fer are at least version 3.0.0.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
--delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
--delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using
--delete-after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

-R, --relative
Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
when you want to send several different directories at the  same
time. For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
"foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on  the  receiving
side.

For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
"path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
"path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
"path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
directories in the rest of the transfer).

When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
ferred as normal directories.

-b, --backup
With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
--omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
"protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
(e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
'*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can  addi-
tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
their original filenames).

Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
cannot  go  outside  the  module's path hierarchy, so take extra
care not to delete it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

-u, --update
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina-
tion  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
equal  to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are
different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
other  special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
the sender and receiver is always  considered  to  be  important
enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-
stamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--inplace
This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
"tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and
forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
file for writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later in the
file.  This does not apply if  you  use  --backup,  since
rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
file for the transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
this for a copy.

This  option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files   with
block-based  changes  or appended data, and also on systems that
are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also  help  keep  a
copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
tents of a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
--delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-

--append
This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
its  size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not  interfere  with
the  updating  of  a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict  with  --sparse
(since it is always extending a file's length).

The  use  of  --append  can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure
that the files that are longer have only grown by the  appending
of  data onto the end.  You should thus use include/exclude/fil-
ter rules to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files
that you know to be growing via appended data.

--append-verify
This  works just like the --append option, but the existing data
on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
ification  step,  which  will  cause  a file to be resent if the
final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,  non-append-
ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
--append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
(or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

-d, --dirs
Tell the sending  side  to  include  any  directories  that  are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
trailing  slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo-
ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
takes precedence.

The  --dirs  option is implied by the --files-from option or the
--list-only option (including an implied --list-only  usage)  if
--recursive  wasn't  specified  (so that directories are seen in
the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
(or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync  to  use   a   hack   of   "-r
--exclude='/*/*'"  to get an older rsync to list a single direc-
tory without recursing.

tination.

When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
of  rsync,  this  option also had the side-effect of telling the
ries.   In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to spec-
ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
exception  is  when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
point outside the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks  are  also
treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no

This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point out-
side the copied tree. All absolute symlinks  are  also  ignored.
Using  this option in conjunction with --relative may give unex-
pected results.

This option tells rsync  to  (1)  modify  all  symlinks  on  the
receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
(see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
had  been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a  sym-

The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
being  used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that  path  is  a
directory or a symlink to a directory.

The  option  only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
you  need  it   to   affect   the   server,   specify   it   via
--remote-option.   (Note  that  in  a local transfer, the client
side is the sender.)

This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon  config-
support directory of the source code.

This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
you  don't  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a  direc-
tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in
effect).

ing side.

source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,  a
trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
directory.

For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
tains  a  file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
all the symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
a  real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify

side.

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
out  this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as
though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
links  on  the  destination  exactly matches that on the source.
Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard  links
include the following:

o      If  the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
linking than what is present in the  source  file  list),
the  copying  algorithm  will  not break them explicitly.
However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
--link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
tions.

Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
the --inplace option for more caveats).

If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which  files
are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in  another member of the
hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive
option.

-p, --perms
This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
might change just the execute permission for the file.

o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-
tory.

Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination
dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this
one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat: make sure that -a  does  not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
these behaviors.)

-E, --executability
This option causes  rsync  to  preserve  the  executability  (or
non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
A regular file is considered to be executable if  at  least  one
'x'  is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
tion file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
'x' permissions.

o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

-A, --acls
This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
ible.

-X, --xattrs
This option causes rsync  to  update  the  destination  extended
attributes to be the same as the source ones.

For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
being done by a super-user copies  all  namespaces  except  sys-
tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be
able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
see the --fake-super option.

Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
(e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat  the  option
(e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with
--fake-super.

--chmod
This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
"chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
--perms is not enabled.

In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-
fer.

-o, --owner
This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
sion).

-g, --group
This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
discussion).

--devices
This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
sockets and fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

-t, --times
This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
used -I,  causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though  rsync's
delta-transfer  algorithm  will make the update fairly efficient
if the files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off
using -t).

-O, --omit-dir-times
This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
of  directories  in  incremental  recursion copies.  The default
--inc-recursive copying normally does an  early-create  pass  of
all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
be able to then set the modify  time  of  the  parent  directory
right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recur-
sive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not nec-
essary  if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it
is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have  accurate
mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modifi-
cation times (see --times).

--super
This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
will get errors if the receiving side isn't  being  run  as  the
super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
can use --no-super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
ties  by  saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special
extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
This  includes  the  file's  owner  and  group (if it is not the
default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files  are
created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner's access
(since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

This  is  a  good way to backup data without using a super-user,
and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the  option
is  used.   To  affect the remote side of a remote-shell connec-
tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the  source  and  the
destination.   If  you  wish  a local copy to enable this option
just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
wish  a  local  copy  to  enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

file.

-S, --sparse
Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will  only
use  the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
not  the  slow glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
more slowly.  If the destination  is  not  an  extent-supporting
filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
no positive effect at all.

-n, --dry-run
This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn't  make  any
changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  -v,  --verbose
and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com-
mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
"bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
where no file transfers were needed.

-W, --whole-file
With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
tination  are  specified  as  local  paths,  but  only   if   no
batch-writing option is in effect.

-x, --one-file-system
This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
the same device as being on the same filesystem.

If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
directory are inaccessible).

is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
extraneous files).

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

--ignore-existing
This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or

This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the

This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
--link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
directory  hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
(meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
directly  written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first  write
the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and  then  use  the  option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting  with  3.1.0,  rsync  will skip the sender-side removal
(and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has  not
stayed unchanged.

--delete
This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
(see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
--recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
see what files are going to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
--ignore-errors option.

The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
--delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
--delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
--delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

--delete-before
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
--delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
--delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
--recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
for more details on file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
files  (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This  option  takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-miss-
ing-args option a step farther:  each missing arg will become  a
deletion  request  of  the corresponding destination file on the
receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is  a
non-empty  directory,  it  will  only be successfully deleted if
--force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only
output.

--ignore-errors
Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
when  using  --delete-after,  and  it  used to be non-functional
unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
ries.   If  that  limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
puts  a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and
exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
condition also occurred).

Beginning  with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
be warned about any extraneous files in the destination  without
removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the

The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
(1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
"GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multi-
plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or  "GB".
(Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
by one byte in the indicated direction.

Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
--max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
--max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
of SIZE and other information.

Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
--min-size=0.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
NECTION" above.

Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
slashes).  Note that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a  sin-
gle-quoted  string  gives  you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to  which  quotes
your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
-e.

See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
option.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
--rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
municate.

One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

-M, --remote-option=OPTION
This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want
certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer  only.
For   instance,   if   you  want  to  pass  --log-file=FILE  and
--fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If you want to have an option affect only the local  side  of  a
transfer  when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to  toggle  an  option
that  will  cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in  a
cryptic fashion.

Note  that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
take steps to protect them.

When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
and the "remote" side is the receiver.

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
in  them  that  prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an
equal  in   it   next   to   a   short   option   letter   (e.g.
-M--log-file=/tmp/foo.   If  this  bug  affects  your version of
popt, you can use the version of  popt  that  is  included  with
rsync.

-C, --cvs-exclude
This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
(these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
RULES section):

RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
.make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
*.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
*.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the com- mand-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil- ter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scan- ning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. -f, --filter=RULE This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer- tain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the com- mand-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu- ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list ele- ments. -0, --from0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). -s, --protect-args This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$, ;, &,
etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
(instead of the shell doing it).

If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are

You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
environment  variable.   If  this variable has a non-zero value,
this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
disabled  by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
--no-s  and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make
sure  it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with a remote
rsync that is older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
file.   Beginning  with  rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside
the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
they will still have a random suffix added).

This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
version on the disk at the same time.

If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
--delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
ing  the  end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
will  use  the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this
side-effect.)

-y, --fuzzy
This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
try to speed up the transfer.

If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
created) directory.

Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
fer.

If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination

NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-
ferred.

Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination

This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
together.  An example:

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/ If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option). Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans- fer. This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina- tion file already exists. Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest. Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a). You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync. -z, --compress With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow con- nection. Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection. This matching-data com- pression comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least version 3.1.1. Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then it will not support the old-style compression, only the new-style (repeated-option) compression. In the future this new-style compression will likely become the default. The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server via the --new-compress option, so if you see that option rejected it means that the server is not new enough to support -zz. Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a future time when new-style compression becomes the default. See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf- fixes that will not be compressed. --compress-level=NUM Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it default. Allowed values for NUM are between 0 and 9; default when --compress option is specified is 6. If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied. --skip-compress=LIST Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/). You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped. Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe- cial meaning). The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no spe- cial meaning. Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes): --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2 The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync): 7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). --numeric-ids With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends. By default rsync will use the username and groupname to deter- mine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it. --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side. The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*' matches everything). You may instead spec- ify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example: --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option. Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side. Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance: --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different values. For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option). For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group. --chown=USER:GROUP This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options internally, so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied. If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier. --timeout=TIMEOUT This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout. --contimeout This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed. If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect- ing to an rsync daemon. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --sockopts This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the --daemon mode section. --blocking-io This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.) --outbuf=MODE This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full). You may specify as lit- tle as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case. The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe. -i, --itemize-changes Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes. This is exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages). The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified. The update types that replace the Y are as follows: o A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent). o A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received). o A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.). o A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links). o A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified). o A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area con- tains a message (e.g. "deleting"). The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos). The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap- pen when talking to an older rsync). The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows: o A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files. o A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer. o A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --times). An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.) o A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires --perms). o An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv- ileges). o A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to set the group). o The u slot is reserved for future use. o The a means that the ACL information changed. o The x means that the extended attribute information changed. One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message). --out-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the --item- ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i". Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans- fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output). --log-file=FILE This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this. Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening: rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/ This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly. --log-file-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'. --stats This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options. The current statistics are as follows: o Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). For exam- ple: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories, sym- links, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list. o Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). o Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x). o Number of regular files transferred is the count of nor- mal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading. o Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks. o Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files. o Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files. o Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files. o File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list. o File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present. o File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver. o Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side. o Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent. -8, --8-bit-output This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard- less of this option's setting. The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig- its. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol- lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9). -h, --human-readable Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024. The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option. The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point). Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a com- parable manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list-only option for one difference. --partial By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par- tial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster. --partial-dir=DIR A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file). On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose. Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par- tial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm). Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted. If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side. An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules. If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g. -f 'R .rsync-partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur- ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par- tial-dir data during the current run.) IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp". You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par- tial files go when --partial is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below). For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set- ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial. This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir. --delay-updates This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around. Conflicts with --inplace and --append. This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is abso- lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place). See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files). -m, --prune-empty-dirs This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc- tories from the file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules. Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule. Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this. You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list: --filter 'protect emptydir/' Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo- ries in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude): rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you). --progress This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress"). While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this: 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04 In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end. These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file. When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this: 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396) In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses- sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list. In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list). -P The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress. Its pur- pose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted. There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec- ify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.) --password-file=FILE This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored). Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file. This option does not supply a password to a remote shell trans- port such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's config file). --list-only This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination). Cau- tion: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example: rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/ Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option. By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just dig- its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters. Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur- sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option. To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m"). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit. For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible. Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance. Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs. This may be fixed in a future version. --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m This option allows you to specify at what time to stop rsync, in year-month-dayThour:minute numeric format (e.g. 2004-12-31T23:59). You can specify a 2 or 4-digit year. You can also leave off various items and the result will be the next possible time that matches the specified data. For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight), "04:00" specifies the next 4am, "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour. If you prefer, you may separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes. --time-limit=MINS This option allows you to specify the maximum number of minutes rsync will run for. --write-batch=FILE Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option. --only-write-batch=FILE Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch. This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch. Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destina- tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening). Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch). --read-batch=FILE Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen- erated by --write-batch. If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details. --protocol=NUM Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system). --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're push- ing or pulling files. Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion. The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable. For a list of what charset names your local iconv library sup- ports, you can run "iconv --list". If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans- late the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option. Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer. For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for. When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con- figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu- ally pass. Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8). -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon. See also these options in the --daemon mode section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The --version output will tell you if this is the case. --checksum-seed=NUM Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed). By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() . This option is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed. DAEMON OPTIONS The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows: --daemon This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax. If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed. See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details. --config=FILE This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only relevant when --daemon is specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi- cally$HOME).

-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
This  option  can  be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is  equivalent  to  adding
the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior to the
first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

--no-detach
When  running  as  a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
required  when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also  the  "port"
global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
This  option  tells  the  rsync daemon to use the given log-file
name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This option tells the rsync  daemon  to  use  the  given  FORMAT
string  instead  of using the "log format" setting in the config
file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the  string  is
empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

--sockopts
This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
file and has the same syntax.

-v, --verbose
This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs
during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
fig section.

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
ets  that  the  rsync daemon will use to listen for connections.
One of these options may be required in older versions of  Linux
to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
if this is the case.

-h, --help
When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to  trans-
fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules either
directly specify include/exclude patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
each name to be transferred against the list  of  include/exclude  pat-
terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
then  that  filename  is  not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
then the filename is not skipped.

Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

You  have  your  choice  of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an  under-
score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
include, + specifies an include pattern.
merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
protect,  P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele-
tion.
risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as  are

Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
full range of rule parsing as described above -- they  only  allow  the
specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a  file).
If  a  pattern  does  not  begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
--filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a  short
or long rule name at the start of the rule.

Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options  on
the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES
You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
"-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
above).  The include/exclude rules  each  specify  a  pattern  that  is
matched  against  the  names  of  the files that are going to be trans-
ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
lar  spot  in  the  hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched
against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule)  or  in
the  merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo"  anywhere  in  the
tree  because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top
down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at  being
the  end  of  the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would
match at any point in the hierarchy  where  a  "foo"  was  found
within  a  directory  named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING
INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

o      if  the  pattern  ends with a / then it will only match a direc-
tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match  and  wildcard
matching  by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

o      a  '['  introduces  a  character  class,  such   as   [a-z]   or
[[:alpha:]].

o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
card character, but it is matched literally  when  no  wildcards
are  present.   This means that there is an extra level of back-
slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard  characters  com-
pared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to
"foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would  need  to  use
"foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

o      if  the  pattern  contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
"**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
"**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
filename.   (Remember  that the algorithm is applied recursively
so "full filename" can actually be any portion of  a  path  from
the starting directory on down.)

o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
"dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the  directory
(as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been specified).  This behavior was

Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied  by
-a),  every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
full  name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
"/foo/bar" must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns  actually
short-circuit  the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files
to send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory,  it  can
render  a  deeper  include  pattern  ineffectual  because rsync did not
descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This  is  par-
ticularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this
won't work:

+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
+ /file-is-included
- *

This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
rule,  so  rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the "some" or
"some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
the  hierarchy  to  be  included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
--prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.   For  instance,
this set of rules works fine:

+ /some/
+ /some/path/
+ /some/path/this-file-is-found
+ /file-also-included
- *

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

o      "-  /foo"  would  exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
transfer-root directory

o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
tory

o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named  bar  two  or  more
levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root direc-
tory

o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
--prune-empty-dirs option)

o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+  foo/bar.c",  and  "-  *"  would
include  only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
"-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file  any  time  the
transfer  was  sending  files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
"subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
non-directories.

o      A  C  is  used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
should follow.

o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents  files
from  being  transferred.   The  default is for a rule to affect
both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify  send-
ing-side includes/excludes.

o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an  alternate  way

o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule is perishable, meaning that it is
ignored in directories that are being  deleted.   For  instance,
the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
"*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
that  was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti-
nation.

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
RULES section above).

There are two kinds  of  merged  files  --  single-instance  ('.')  and
per-directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time,
and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
"."  rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every direc-
tory that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when
the  file  exists  into  the  current  list  of inherited rules.  These
per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
is  the  sending  side that is being scanned for the available files to
transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted
(see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

Some examples:

merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
. /etc/rsync/default.rules
dir-merge .per-dir-filter
dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

o      A C is a way to specify that  the  file  should  be  read  in  a
CVS-compatible  manner.   This  turns  on 'n', 'w', and '-', but
also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If  no
filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
"dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited  by  subdirecto-
ries.

o      A  w  specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split on whitespace
instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed  as  two  rules
(assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

o      You  may  also  specify  any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read  in  from
the  file  default to having that modifier set (except for the !
modifier, which would not be useful).  For  instance,  "merge,-/
.excl"  would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as absolute-path
excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC"  would  each  make
all  their  per-directory  rules apply only on the sending side.
If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod-
ifier  or  both),  then  the  rules in the file must not specify
sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of  the  direc-
tory  where  the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.
Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited  per-directory
rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority
than the inherited rules.   The  entire  set  of  dir-merge  rules  are
grouped  together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that  got  specified
earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited  rules
for the current merge file.

Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored  rules  in  a
per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
the dir-merge filter file was found.

Here's  an  example  filter  file  which  you'd specify via --filter=".
file":

merge /home/user/.global-filter
- *.gz
dir-merge .rules
+ *.[ch]
- *.o

This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
the  start  of  the  list  and  also turns the ".rules" filename into a
per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
matches at the root of the transfer).

If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
ent dirs from that starting point to the  transfer  directory  for  the
indicated  per-directory  file.   For instance, here is a common filter
(see -F):

--filter=': /.rsync-filter'

That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all  direc-
tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
prior to the start of the normal directory scan  of  the  file  in  the
directories  that  are  sent  as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
"/src"   before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file  in
"/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
ent-dir  scan  and  only  looks  for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
directory that is a part of the transfer.

If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-
nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
affect   where   the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  inclusion  of  the
per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your  rules  by  putting
the  ":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all
rules).  For example:

cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
+ foo.o
:C
- *.old
EOT
rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each  one  will  merge
all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
rules  that  follow  the  :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIG-
NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
"-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The  "current"
list  is  either  the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
while parsing the filter options)  or  a  set  of  per-directory  rules
(which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
are anchored at the merge-file's  directory).   If  you  think  of  the
transfer  as  a  subtree  of  names  that are being sent from sender to
receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated
in  the  destination  directory.  This root governs where patterns that

Because the matching is relative to  the  transfer-root,  changing  the
trailing  slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
option affects the path you need to use in your matching  (in  addition
to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at
the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant  on  the
sending  side,  so  you  can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-
mands:

rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
some  files  to  be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The  easiest  way
is  to  include  the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
--delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
the  same  exclude  rules as the sending side before it tries to delete
anything:

rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory  merge
files  on  the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
--delete host:src/dir /dest

In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
transfer,  but  (on  the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
rules merged from the .rules files because they  were  specified  after
the per-directory merge rule.

In  one  final  example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they  don't
get  deleted)  and  then put rules into the local files to control what
else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
host:src/dir /dest
rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE
Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do
this using batch mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
apply  the  changes  made  to the source tree to one of the destination
trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store  in  a
"batch  file"  all  the  information  needed  to  repeat this operation
against other, identical destination trees.

Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
ple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols  can  be  used  to
transfer  the  batch  update  files  in parallel to many hosts at once,
instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

To apply the recorded changes to another destination  tree,  run  rsync
with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
information stored in the batch file.

For   your  convenience,  a  script  file  is  also  created  when  the
write-batch option is used:  it will be named the  same  as  the  batch
file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This script file contains a command-line
suitable for updating a destination tree  using  the  associated  batch
file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, option-
ally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname  which  is  then
used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the
destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used  to
create the batch file.

Examples:

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote:
$ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
\$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In   these   examples,   rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from
/source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
"foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
local  --  you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
either the  remote-shell  syntax  or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as
desired.

o      The  first  example  uses  the  created "foo.sh" file to get the
right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
remote host.

o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the  remote
machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
the  script  file  if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
the "--exclude-from=-" option).

Caveats:

The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
to be identical to the destination tree that was  used  to  create  the
batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the file-update may be
attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
with  an  error.   This  means  that  it  should  be  safe  to re-run a
read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If  you  wish  to
force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted regardless of the
file's size and date, use the -I option (when reading the  batch).   If
an  error  occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially
updated state.  In  that  case,  rsync  can  be  used  in  its  regular
(non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an  error
if  the  protocol  version  in  the  batch  file  is  too  new  for the
way  to  have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older
rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
2.6.3,  so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not
work.)

When reading a batch file,  rsync  will  force  the  value  of  certain
options  to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to  --read-batch,
--files-from is dropped, and the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options
are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The   code   that   creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  fil-
ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended  as  a
"here"  document  to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
--delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
the shell script as an easy way to  run  the  appropriate  --read-batch
command for the batched data.

The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
version uses a new implementation.

Three basic behaviors are possible when  rsync  encounters  a  symbolic

By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not  transferred at all.  A message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
get on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"  symbolic  links.   An
example  where  this  might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not  include  symbolic
links  to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of  the  site.  Using
--copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they
point  to  on  the  destination.   Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
for --safe-links to have any effect.)

(start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."  components  to
ascend from the directory being copied.

Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

other options to affect).

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-

Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

DIAGNOSTICS
rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote  shell
facility  producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is  to  run  your
remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
rsync  then  you  will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.
The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
(such as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements  for

If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity  rsync  will  show  why
each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested  action  not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  vari-
able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify  a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
option to be enabled by default, or a zero value  to  make  sure
that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
default shell used as the transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e
option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
a  remote  shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
set, the username defaults to "nobody".

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
.cvsignore file.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may re-sync unmodified
files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred  as  native  numerical
values

Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
This man page is current for version 3.1.2 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
should never be typed by  a  user  under  normal  circumstances.   Some
awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
when setting up a login that  can  only  run  an  rsync  command.   For
instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a

CREDITS
rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
file COPYING for details.

A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site  includes
an  FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual
page.

The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

We would be delighted to hear  from  you  if  you  like  this  program.

This  program  uses  the  excellent zlib compression library written by

THANKS
Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
Terpstra,  David  Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
I have.

AUTHOR
rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul  Mackerras.
Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
by Wayne Davison.

Mailing  lists  for  support   and   development   are   available   at
http://lists.samba.org

21 Dec 2015                         rsync(1)


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