shar(1)                          User Commands                         shar(1)

       shar - create a shell archive

       shar [-flags] [-flag [value]] [--option-name[[=| ]value]] [<file>...]

       If  no  files are specified, the list of input files is read from stan-
       dard input.  Standard input must not be a terminal.

       shar creates "shell archives" (or shar files) which are in text  format
       and  can  be  emailed.   These files may be unpacked later by executing
       them with /bin/sh.  The resulting archive is sent to standard  out  un-
       less  the  -o option is given.  A wide range of features provide exten-
       sive flexibility in manufacturing shars and in specifying shar  "smart-
       ness".   Archives  may be fairly simple (--vanilla-operation) or essen-
       tially a mailable tar archive.

       Options may be specified in any order until a file argument  is  recog-
       nized.  If the --intermix-type option has been specified, more compres-
       sion and encoding options will be recognized  between  the  file  argu-

       Though this program supports uuencode-d files, they are deprecated.  If
       you are emailing files, please consider mime-encoded files.  If you  do
       uuencode, base64 is the preferred encoding method.

   Specifying compression
       -p, --intermix-type
              specify  compression  for input files.  This option must not ap-
              pear in combination with any of the following options:  vanilla-

              Allow  positional parameter options.  The compression method and
              encoding method options  may  be  intermixed  with  file  names.
              Files  named after these options will be processed in the speci-
              fied way.

       -C program, --compactor=program
              specify compaction (compression) program.  This option  may  ap-
              pear  an unlimited number of times.  This option must not appear
              in combination with any of the following options: vanilla-opera-

              The gzip, bzip2 and compress compactor commands may be specified
              by the program name as the option name, e.g. --gzip.  Those  op-
              tions, however, are being deprecated.  There is also the xz com-
              pactor now.  Specify xz with -C xz or --compactor=xz.

                      Specifying the compactor "none" will disable  file  com-
              pression.   Compressed  files are never processed as plain text.
              They are always uuencoded and the recipient must  have  uudecode
              to unpack them.

              Specifying the compactor compress is deprecated.

       -g level, --level-of-compression=level
              pass LEVEL for compression.  This option takes an integer number
              as its argument.  The value of level is constrained to being:
                  in the range  1 through 9
              The default level for this option is:

              Some compression programs allow for a level of compression.  The
              default is 9, but this option allows you to specify something
              else.  This value is used by gzip, bzip2 and xz, but not com-

       -j, --bzip2
              bzip2 and uuencode files.  This option may appear an unlimited
              number of times.

              bzip2 compress and uuencode all files prior to packing.  The re-
              cipient must have uudecode bzip2 in order to unpack.


       -z, --gzip
              gzip and uuencode files.  This option may appear an unlimited
              number of times.

              gzip compress and uuencode all files prior to packing.  The re-
              cipient must have uudecode and gzip in order to unpack.


       -Z, --compress
              compress and uuencode files.  This option may appear an unlim-
              ited number of times.

              compress and uuencode all files prior to packing.  The recipient
              must have uudecode and compress in order to unpack.


              This is an alias for the --level-of-compression option.


       -b bits, --bits-per-code=bits
              pass bits (default 12) to compress.  The default bits for this
              option is:

              This is the compression factor used by the compress program.


   Specifying file encoding methodology
       Files may be stored in the shar either as plain text or uuencoded.  By
       default, the program selects which by examining the file.  You may
       force the selection for all files.  In intermixed option/file mode,
       this setting may be changed during processing.

       -M, --mixed-uuencode
              decide uuencoding for each file.  This option is a member of the
              mixed-uuencode class of options.

              Automatically determine if the files are text or binary and ar-
              chive correctly.  Files found to be binary are uuencoded prior
              to packing.  This is the default behavior for shar.

              For a file to be considered a text file instead of a binary
              file, all the following should be true:

              The file does not contain any ASCII control character besides BS
              (backspace), HT (horizontal tab), LF (new line) or FF (form

              The file contains no character with its eighth-bit set.

              The file contains no line beginning with the five letters "from
              ", capitalized or not.  (Mail handling programs will often gra-
              tuitously insert a > character before it.)

              The file is either empty or ends with a LF (newline) byte.

              No line in the file contains more than 200 characters.  For
              counting purpose, lines are separated by a LF (newline).

       -B, --uuencode
              treat all files as binary.  This option is a member of the
              mixed-uuencode class of options.

              Use uuencode prior to packing all files.  This increases the
              size of the archive.  The recipient must have uudecode in order
              to unpack.  Compressed files are always encoded.

       -T, --text-files
              treat all files as text.  This option is a member of the mixed-
              uuencode class of options.

              If you have files with non-ascii bytes or text that some mail
              handling programs do not like, you may find difficulties.  How-
              ever, if you are using FTP or SSH/SCP, the non-conforming text
              files should be okay.

   Specifying file selection and output modes
       -o prefix, --output-prefix=prefix
              print output to file PREFIX.nn.

              Save the archive to files prefix.01 thru prefix.nn instead of
              sending all output to standard out.  Must be specified when the
              --whole-size-limit or --split-size-limit options are specified.

              When prefix contains a % character, prefix is then interpreted
              as a sprintf format, which should be able to display a single
              decimal number.  When prefix does not contain such a % charac-
              ter, the string .%02d is internally appended.

       -l size, --whole-size-limit=size
              split archive, not files, to size.  This option is a member of
              the whole-size-limit class of options.  This option must appear
              in combination with the following options: output-prefix.  This
              option takes an integer number as its argument.  The value of
              size is constrained to being:
                  in the range  8 through 1023, or
                  in the range  8192 through 4194304

              Limit the output file size to size bytes, but don't split input
              files.  If size is less than 1024, then it will be multiplied by
              1024.  The value may also be specified with a k, K, m or M suf-
              fix.  The number is then multiplied by 1000, 1024, 1000000, or
              1048576, respectively.  4M (4194304) is the maximum allowed.

              Unlike the split-size-limit option, this allows the recipient of
              the shar files to unpack them in any order.

       -L size, --split-size-limit=size
              split archive or files to size.  This option is a member of the
              whole-size-limit class of options.  This option must appear in
              combination with the following options: output-prefix.  This op-
              tion takes an integer number as its argument.  The value of size
              is constrained to being:
                  in the range  8 through 1023, or
                  in the range  8192 through 4194304

              Limit output file size to size bytes, splitting files if neces-
              sary.  The allowed values are specified as with the --whole-
              size-limit option.

              The archive parts created with this option must be unpacked in
              the correct order.  If the recipient of the shell archives wants
              to put all of them in a single email folder (file), they will
              have to be saved in the correct order for unshar to unpack them
              all at once (using one of the split archive options).  see: un-
              shar Invocation.

       -I file, --input-file-list=file
              read file list from a file.

              This option causes file to be reopened as standard input.  If no
              files are found on the input line, then standard input is read
              for input file names.  Use of this option will prohibit input
              files from being listed on the command line.

              Input must be in a form similar to that generated by find, one
              filename per line.  This switch is especially useful when the
              command line will not hold the list of files to be archived.

              If the --intermix-type option is specified on the command line,
              then the compression options may be included in the standard in-
              put on lines by themselves and no file name may begin with a hy-

              For example:
                  { echo --compact xz
                     find . -type f -print | sort
                  } | shar -S -p -L50K -o /somewhere/big

       -S, --stdin-file-list
              read file list from standard input.

              This option is actually a no-op.  It is a wrapper for --input-


   Controlling the shar headers
       -n name, --archive-name=name
              use name to document the archive.

              Name of archive to be included in the subject header of the shar
              files.  See the --net-headers option.

       -s who@where, --submitter=who@where
              override the submitter name.

              shar will normally determine the submitter name by querying the
              system.  Use this option if it is being done on behalf of an-

       -a, --net-headers
              output Submitted-by: & Archive-name: headers.  This option must
              appear in combination with the following options: archive-name.

              Adds specialized email headers:
                  Submitted-by: who@@where
                  Archive-name: name/part##
              The who@@where is normally derived, but can be specified with
              the --submitter option.  The name must be provided with the
              --archive-name option.  If the archive name includes a slash (/)
              character, then the /part## is omitted.  Thus -n xyzzy produces:

              while -n xyzzy/patch produces:

              and -n xyzzy/patch01. produces:

       -c, --cut-mark
              start the shar with a cut line.

              A line saying 'Cut here' is placed at the start of each output

       -t, --translate
              translate messages in the script.

              Translate messages in the script.  If you have set the LANG en-
              vironment variable, messages printed by shar will be in the
              specified language.  The produced script will still be emitted
              using messages in the lingua franca of the computer world: Eng-
              lish.  This option will cause the script messages to appear in
              the languages specified by the LANG environment variable set
              when the script is produced.

   Protecting against transmission issues
              do not use `wc -c' to check size.

              Do NOT check each file with 'wc -c' after unpack.  The default
              is to check.

       -D, --no-md5-digest
              do not use md5sum digest to verify.

              Do not use md5sum digest to verify the unpacked files.  The de-
              fault is to check.

       -F, --force-prefix
              apply the prefix character on every line.

              Forces the prefix character to be prepended to every line, even
              if not required.  This option may slightly increase the size of
              the archive, especially if --uuencode or a compression option is

       -d delim, --here-delimiter=delim
              use delim to delimit the files.  The default delim for this op-
              tion is:

              Use DELIM to delimit the files in the shar instead of SHAR_EOF.
              This is for those who want to personalize their shar files.  The
              delimiter will always be prefixed and suffixed with underscores.

   Producing different kinds of shars
       -V, --vanilla-operation
              produce very simple shars.

              This option produces vanilla shars which rely only upon the ex-
              istence of echo, test and sed in the unpacking environment.

              It changes the default behavior from mixed mode (--mixed-uuen-
              code) to text mode (--text-files).  Warnings are produced if op-
              tions are specified that will require decompression or decoding
              in the unpacking environment.

       -P, --no-piping
              use temporary files between programs.

              In the shar file, use a temporary file to hold file contents be-
              tween unpacking stages instead of using pipes.  This option is
              mandatory when you know the unpacking will happen on systems
              that do not support pipes.

       -x, --no-check-existing
              blindly overwrite existing files.

              Create the archive so that when processed it will overwrite ex-
              isting files without checking first.  If neither this option nor
              the --query-user option is specified, the unpack will not over-
              write pre-existing files.  In all cases, however, if --cut-mark
              is passed as a parameter to the script when unpacking, then ex-
              isting files will be overwritten unconditionally.

                  sh shar-archive-file -c

       -X, --query-user
              ask user before overwriting files.  This option must not appear
              in combination with any of the following options: vanilla-opera-

              When unpacking, interactively ask the user if files should be
              overwritten.  Do not use for shars submitted to the net.

              Use of this option produces shars which will cause problems with
              some unshar-style procedures, particularly when used together
              with vanilla mode (--vanilla-operation).  Use this feature
              mainly for archives to be passed among agreeable parties.  Cer-
              tainly, -X is not for shell archives which are to be submitted
              to Usenet or other public networks.

              The problem is that unshar programs or procedures often feed
              /bin/sh from its standard input, thus putting /bin/sh and the
              shell archive script in competition for input lines.  As an at-
              tempt to alleviate this problem, shar will try to detect if
              /dev/tty exists at the receiving site and will use it to read
              user replies.  But this does not work in all cases, it may hap-
              pen that the receiving user will have to avoid using unshar pro-
              grams or procedures, and call /bin/sh directly.  In vanilla
              mode, using /dev/tty is not even attempted.

       -m, --no-timestamp
              do not restore modification times.

              Avoid generating 'touch' commands to restore the file modifica-
              tion dates when unpacking files from the archive.

              When file modification times are not preserved, project build
              programs like "make" will see built files older than the files
              they get built from.  This is why, when this option is not used,
              a special effort is made to restore timestamps.

       -Q, --quiet-unshar
              avoid verbose messages at unshar time.

              Verbose OFF.  Disables the inclusion of comments to be output
              when the archive is unpacked.

       -f, --basename
              restore in one directory, despite hierarchy.

              Restore by the base file name only, rather than path.  This op-
              tion causes only file names to be used, which is useful when
              building a shar from several directories, or another directory.
              Note that if a directory name is passed to shar, the substruc-
              ture of that directory will be restored whether this option is
              specified or not.

   Internationalization options
              do not internationalize.

              Do not produce internationalized shell archives, use default
              English messages.  By default, shar produces archives that will
              try to output messages in the unpackers preferred language (as
              determined by the LANG/LC_MESSAGES environmental variables) when
              they are unpacked.  If no message file for the unpackers lan-
              guage is found at unpack time, messages will be in English.

              print directory with shar messages.

              Prints the directory shar looks in to find messages files for
              different languages, then immediately exits.

   User feedback/entertainment
       -q, --quiet
              do not output verbose messages.

              omit progress messages.

              This is an alias for the --quiet option.

       -h, --help
              Display usage information and exit.

       -!, --more-help
              Pass the extended usage information through a pager.

       -R [cfgfile], --save-opts [=cfgfile]
              Save the option state to cfgfile.  The default is the last con-
              figuration file listed in the OPTION PRESETS section, below.
              The command will exit after updating the config file.

       -r cfgfile, --load-opts=cfgfile, --no-load-opts
              Load options from cfgfile.  The no-load-opts form will disable
              the loading of earlier config/rc/ini files.  --no-load-opts is
              handled early, out of order.

       -v [{v|c|n --version [{v|c|n}]}]
              Output version of program and exit.  The default mode is `v', a
              simple version.  The `c' mode will print copyright information
              and `n' will print the full copyright notice.

       Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by load-
       ing values from configuration ("RC" or ".INI") file(s).  The file
       "$HOME/.sharrc" will be used, if present.

       No attempt is made to restore the protection and modification dates for
       directories, even if this is done by default for files.  Thus, if a di-
       rectory is given to shar, the protection and modification dates of cor-
       responding unpacked directory may not match those of the original.

       If a directory is passed to shar, it may be scanned more than once, to
       conserve memory.  Therefore, do not change the directory contents while
       shar is running.

       Be careful that the output file(s) are not included in the inputs or
       shar may loop until the disk fills up.  Be particularly careful when a
       directory is passed to shar that the output files are not in that di-
       rectory or a subdirectory of it.

       Use of the compression and encoding options will slow the archive
       process, perhaps considerably.

       Use of the --query-user produces shars which will cause problems with
       many unshar procedures.  Use this feature only for archives to be
       passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, query-user is NOT for shell
       archives which are to be distributed across the net.  The use of com-
       pression in net shars will cause you to be flamed off the earth.  Not
       using the --no-timestamp or --force-prefix options may also get you oc-
       casional complaints.  Put these options into your ~/.sharrc file.

       See OPTION PRESETS for configuration files.

       The first shows how to make a shell archive out of all C program
       sources.  The second produces a shell archive with all .c and .h files,
       which unpacks silently.  The third gives a shell archive of all uuen-
       coded .arc files, into numbered files starting from  The
       last example gives a shell archive which will use only the file names
       at unpack time.

           shar *.c > cprog.shar
           shar -Q *.[ch] > cprog.shar
           shar -B -l28 *.arc
           shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c >

       One of the following exit values will be returned:

       0  (EXIT_SUCCESS)
              Successful program execution.

              The command options were misconfigured.

              a specified input could not be found

              open/close of specified directory failed

       4  (EXIT_FAILED)
              Resource limit/miscelleaneous shar command failure

       63  (EXIT_BUG)
              There is a shar command bug.  Please report it.

       66  (EX_NOINPUT)
              A specified configuration file could not be loaded.

       70  (EX_SOFTWARE)
              libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report it to
      Thank you.


       The shar and unshar programs is the collective work of many authors.
       Many people contributed by reporting problems, suggesting various im-
       provements or submitting actual code.  A list of these people is in the
       THANKS file in the sharutils distribution.

       Copyright (C) 1994-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc. all rights re-
       served.  This program is released under the terms of the GNU General
       Public License, version 3 or later.

       Please put sharutils in the subject line for emailed bug reports.  It
       helps to spot the message.

       Please send bug reports to:

       This manual page was AutoGen-erated from the shar option definitions.

GNU sharutils (4.15.2)            30 May 2015                          shar(1)

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