SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)              systemd-analyze             SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-level [LEVEL]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-target [TARGET]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPECS...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] service-watchdogs [BOOL]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
       statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
       system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit
       files. It is also used to access special functions useful for advanced
       system manager debugging.

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
       userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
       (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
       normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
       system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully
       finished initialization or the disk is idle.

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
       the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
       optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
       initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for
       the initialization of another service to complete. Also note:
       systemd-analyze blame doesn't display results for services with
       Type=simple, because systemd considers such services to be started
       immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays can be

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the
       time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
       the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
       started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to
       start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket
       activation and because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
       services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
       spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
       dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
       command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
       generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
       passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
       *.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the
       graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
       serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
       change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze cat-config is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on
       config files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any
       drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of directories
       and rules for precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path
       including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or
       /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such
       as systemd/logind.conf).

       Example 1. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

       systemd-analyze unit-paths outputs a list of all directories from which
       unit files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded.
       Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the user manager instance,
       and --global for the global configuration of user manager instances.
       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
       systemd-analyze itself, and does not comunicate with the running
       manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
       directories omitted.

       systemd-analyze log-level prints the current log level of the systemd
       daemon. If an optional argument LEVEL is provided, then the command
       changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts
       the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze log-target prints the current log target of the systemd
       daemon. If an optional argument TARGET is provided, then the command
       changes the current log target of the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts
       the same values as --log-target=, described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]  will list system calls
       contained in the specified system call set SET, or all known sets if no
       sets are specified. Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
       errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
       loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full unit
       search path is formed by combining the directories for all command line
       arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH
       is supported, and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set
       of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5)). All units files present in
       the directories containing the command line arguments will be used in
       preference to the other paths.

       systemd-analyze calendar will parse and normalize repetitive calendar
       time events, and will calculate when they will elapse next. This takes
       the same input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5),
       following the syntax described in systemd.time(7).

       systemd-analyze service-watchdogs prints the current state of service
       runtime watchdogs of the systemd daemon. If an optional boolean
       argument is provided, then globally enables or disables the service
       runtime watchdogs (WatchdogSec=) and emergency actions (e.g.
       OnFailure= or StartLimitAction=); see systemd.service(5). The hardware
       watchdog is not affected by this setting.

       systemd-analyze timespan parses a time span and outputs the equivalent
       value in microseconds, and as a reformatted timespan. The time span
       should adhere to the same syntax documented in systemd.time(7). Values
       without associated magnitudes are parsed as seconds.

       systemd-analyze security analyzes the security and sandboxing settings
       of one or more specified service units. If at least one unit name is
       specified the security settings of the specified service units are
       inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is
       specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units are
       inspected and a terse table with results shown. The command checks for
       various security-related service settings, assigning each a numeric
       "exposure level" value, depending on how important a setting is. It
       then calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is
       an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating how exposed a service
       is security-wise. High exposure levels indicate very little applied
       sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate tight sandboxing and strongest
       security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the per-service
       security features systemd itself implements. This means that any
       additional security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are
       not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way should not be
       misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means that there is no
       effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor that the
       service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks. High
       exposure levels do indicate however that most likely the service might
       benefit from additional settings applied to them. Please note that many
       of the security and sandboxing settings individually can be
       circumvented -- unless combined with others. For example, if a service
       retains the privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the
       sandboxing options can be undone by the service code itself. Due to
       that is essential that each service uses the most comprehensive and
       strict sandboxing and security settings possible. The tool will take
       into account some of these combinations and relationships between the
       settings, but not all. Also note that the security and sandboxing
       settings analyzed here only apply to the operations executed by the
       service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system (such as
       D-Bus) it might request operations from other services that are not
       subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and
       sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not
       validated too.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
           which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is
           passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
           --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=,
           Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed,
           this shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
           selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
           options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
           matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively,
           nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
           name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
           relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
           When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
           match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
           specified with those two options will trim the list of edges
           matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
           determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the
           latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
           unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators
           require root privileges. Under a normal user, running with
           generators enabled will generally result in some warnings.

           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root
           path PATH.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
           and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
           optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, seperated by
           ":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which connects
           directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will
           use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance. Container
           names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses
           in brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
           connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

       Example 2. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 3. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

       The following errors are currently detected:

       o   unknown sections and directives,

       o   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       o   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

       o   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
           the system or not executable.

       Example 4. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 5. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
           neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
           pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
           more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
           to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager
           that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable.
           This allows less to handle Ctrl+C itself.

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
           invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

systemd 240                                                 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

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