SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1) systemd-analyze SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)
systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [> file.dot]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-level [LEVEL]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-target [TARGET]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPECS...
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] service-watchdogs [BOOL]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...
systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit
files. It is also used to access special functions useful for advanced
system manager debugging.
systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
(initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully
finished initialization or the disk is idle.
systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for
the initialization of another service to complete. Also note:
systemd-analyze blame doesn't display results for services with
Type=simple, because systemd considers such services to be started
immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays can be
systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...] prints a tree of the
time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to
start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket
activation and because of the parallel execution of units.
systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
spent on initialization.
systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
*.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the
graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination
systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.
systemd-analyze cat-config is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on
config files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any
drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of directories
and rules for precedence. Each argument must be either an absolute path
including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or
/usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such
Example 1. Showing logind configuration
$ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
... some override from another package
... some administrator override
systemd-analyze unit-paths outputs a list of all directories from which
unit files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded.
Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the user manager instance,
and --global for the global configuration of user manager instances.
Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
systemd-analyze itself, and does not comunicate with the running
systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value
to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
systemd-analyze log-level prints the current log level of the systemd
daemon. If an optional argument LEVEL is provided, then the command
changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts
the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).
systemd-analyze log-target prints the current log target of the systemd
daemon. If an optional argument TARGET is provided, then the command
changes the current log target of the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts
the same values as --log-target=, described in systemd(1)).
systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...] will list system calls
contained in the specified system call set SET, or all known sets if no
sets are specified. Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.
systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full unit
search path is formed by combining the directories for all command line
arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH
is supported, and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set
of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5)). All units files present in
the directories containing the command line arguments will be used in
preference to the other paths.
systemd-analyze calendar will parse and normalize repetitive calendar
time events, and will calculate when they will elapse next. This takes
the same input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5),
following the syntax described in systemd.time(7).
systemd-analyze service-watchdogs prints the current state of service
runtime watchdogs of the systemd daemon. If an optional boolean
argument is provided, then globally enables or disables the service
runtime watchdogs (WatchdogSec=) and emergency actions (e.g.
OnFailure= or StartLimitAction=); see systemd.service(5). The hardware
watchdog is not affected by this setting.
systemd-analyze timespan parses a time span and outputs the equivalent
value in microseconds, and as a reformatted timespan. The time span
should adhere to the same syntax documented in systemd.time(7). Values
without associated magnitudes are parsed as seconds.
systemd-analyze security analyzes the security and sandboxing settings
of one or more specified service units. If at least one unit name is
specified the security settings of the specified service units are
inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name is
specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units are
inspected and a terse table with results shown. The command checks for
various security-related service settings, assigning each a numeric
"exposure level" value, depending on how important a setting is. It
then calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is
an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating how exposed a service
is security-wise. High exposure levels indicate very little applied
sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate tight sandboxing and strongest
security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the per-service
security features systemd itself implements. This means that any
additional security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are
not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way should not be
misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means that there is no
effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor that the
service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks. High
exposure levels do indicate however that most likely the service might
benefit from additional settings applied to them. Please note that many
of the security and sandboxing settings individually can be
circumvented -- unless combined with others. For example, if a service
retains the privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the
sandboxing options can be undone by the service code itself. Due to
that is essential that each service uses the most comprehensive and
strict sandboxing and security settings possible. The tool will take
into account some of these combinations and relationships between the
settings, but not all. Also note that the security and sandboxing
settings analyzed here only apply to the operations executed by the
service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system (such as
D-Bus) it might request operations from other services that are not
subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and
sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not
If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.
The following options are understood:
Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied
Operates on the user systemd instance.
Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is
passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
--require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=,
Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed,
this shows dependencies of all these types.
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively,
nodes of a relationship.
Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
specified with those two options will trim the list of edges
matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
determine the list of edges shown otherwise.
When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the
latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".
Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in
Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators
require root privileges. Under a normal user, running with
generators enabled will generally result in some warnings.
With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root
Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, seperated by
":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which connects
directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will
use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance. Container
names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses
Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
Print a short help text and exit.
Print a short version string and exit.
Do not pipe output into a pager.
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
EXAMPLES FOR DOT
Example 2. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with
$ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
$ eog avahi.svg
Example 3. Plots the dependencies between all known target units
$ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
$ eog targets.svg
EXAMPLES FOR VERIFY
The following errors are currently detected:
o unknown sections and directives,
o missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,
o man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the
o commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
the system or not executable.
Example 4. Misspelt directives
$ cat ./user.slice
$ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
[./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
[./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
Unit different.service failed to load:
No such file or directory.
Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16
Example 5. Missing service units
$ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
==> ./a.socket <==
==> ./b.socket <==
$ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
Service email@example.com not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.
Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing
Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").
If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager
that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable.
This allows less to handle Ctrl+C itself.
Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).
systemd 240 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)