tail(1)



TAIL(1)                          User Commands                         TAIL(1)

NAME
       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS
       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.

       With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are  mandatory  for  short  options
       too.

       -c, --bytes=[+]NUM
              output  the  last  NUM  bytes; or use -c +NUM to output starting
              with byte NUM of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows;

              an absent option argument means 'descriptor'

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=[+]NUM
              output the last NUM lines, instead of the last  10;  or  use  -n
              +NUM to output starting with line NUM

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not

              changed  size  after  N  (default 5) iterations to see if it has
              been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated  log
              files); with inotify, this option is rarely useful

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file if it is inaccessible

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between
              iterations; with inotify and --pid=P, check process P  at  least
              once every N seconds

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       -z, --zero-terminated
              line delimiter is NUL, not newline

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       NUM may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000,
       M 1024*1024, GB 1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for  T,  P,
       E, Z, Y.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will  continue
       to  track its end.  This default behavior is not desirable when you re-
       ally want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descriptor
       (e.g.,  log  rotation).   Use  --follow=name in that case.  That causes
       tail to track the named file in a way that accommodates  renaming,  re-
       moval and creation.

AUTHOR
       Written  by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-
       ering.

REPORTING BUGS
       GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       Report tail translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is  free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       head(1)

       Full documentation at: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/tail>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tail invocation'

GNU coreutils 8.30                August 2018                          TAIL(1)

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