uconv(1)



UCONV(1)                        ICU 60.2 Manual                       UCONV(1)

NAME
       uconv - convert data from one encoding to another

SYNOPSIS
       uconv  [  -h,  -?,  --help  ]  [ -V, --version ] [ -s, --silent ] [ -v,
       --verbose ] [ -l, --list | -l, --list-code code | --default-code |  -L,
       --list-transliterators   ]  [  --canon  ]  [  -x  transliteration  ]  [
       --to-callback callback | -c ] [  --from-callback  callback  |  -i  ]  [
       --callback callback ] [ --fallback | --no-fallback ] [ -b, --block-size
       size ] [ -f, --from-code encoding  ]  [  -t,  --to-code  encoding  ]  [
       --add-signature  ]  [  --remove-signature  ]  [  -o,  --output file ] [
       file...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       uconv converts, or transcodes, each given file (or its  standard  input
       if no file is specified) from one encoding to another.  The transcoding
       is done using Unicode as a pivot encoding  (i.e.  the  data  are  first
       transcoded  from their original encoding to Unicode, and then from Uni-
       code to the destination encoding).

       If an encoding is not specified or is -, the default encoding is  used.
       Thus,  calling  uconv with no encoding provides an easy way to validate
       and sanitize data files for further consumption by tools requiring data
       in the default encoding.

       When  calling  uconv, it is possible to specify callbacks that are used
       to handle invalid characters in the input, or characters that cannot be
       transcoded  to  the  destination encoding. Some encodings, for example,
       offer a default substitution character that can be  used  to  represent
       the occurrence of such characters in the input. Other callbacks offer a
       useful visual representation of the invalid data.

       uconv can also run the  specified  transliteration  on  the  transcoded
       data,  in  which  case  transliteration  will happen as an intermediate
       step, after the data have been transcoded to Unicode.  The translitera-
       tion  can be either a list of semicolon-separated transliterator names,
       or an arbitrarily complex set of rules in the ICU transliteration rules
       format.

       For  transcoding  purposes,  uconv options are compatible with those of
       iconv(1), making it easy to replace it in scripts. It is not  necessar-
       ily  the  case,  however, that the encoding names used by uconv and ICU
       are the same as the ones used by iconv(1).  Also, options that  provide
       informational data, such as the -l, --list one offered by some iconv(1)
       variants such as GNU's, produce data in a slightly different and easier
       to parse format.

OPTIONS
       -h, -?, --help
              Print help about usage and exit.

       -V, --version
              Print the version of uconv and exit.

       -s, --silent
              Suppress messages during execution.

       -v, --verbose
              Display extra informative messages during execution.

       -l, --list
              List all the available encodings and exit.

       -l, --list-code code
              List  only  the  code encoding and exit. If code is not a proper
              encoding, exit with an error.

       --default-code
              List only the name of the default encoding and exit.

       -L, --list-transliterators
              List all the available transliterators and exit.

       --canon
              If used with -l, --list or --default-code, the list of encodings
              is  produced  in  a  format compatible with convrtrs.txt(5).  If
              used with -L, --list-transliterators, print only one transliter-
              ator name per line.

       -x transliteration
              Run  the  given  transliteration on the transcoded Unicode data,
              and use the transliterated data as input for the transcoding  to
              the destination encoding.

       --to-callback callback
              Use  callback  to handle characters that cannot be transcoded to
              the destination encoding. See section CALLBACKS for  details  on
              valid callbacks.

       -c     Omit  invalid characters from the output.  Same as --to-callback
              skip.

       --from-callback callback
              Use callback to handle characters that cannot be transcoded from
              the  original  encoding.  See  section  CALLBACKS for details on
              valid callbacks.

       -i     Ignore invalid sequences in the input.  Same as  --from-callback
              skip.

       --callback callback
              Use callback to handle both characters that cannot be transcoded
              from  the  original  encoding  and  characters  that  cannot  be
              transcoded  to  the  destination encoding. See section CALLBACKS
              for details on valid callbacks.

       --fallback
              Use the fallback mapping when transcoding from  Unicode  to  the
              destination encoding.

       --no-fallback
              Do not use the fallback mapping when transcoding from Unicode to
              the destination encoding.  This is the default.

       -b, --block-size size
              Read input in blocks of size bytes at a time. The default  block
              size is 4096.

       -f, --from-code encoding
              Set the original encoding of the data to encoding.

       -t, --to-code encoding
              Transcode the data to encoding.

       --add-signature
              Add  a  U+FEFF  Unicode  signature character (BOM) if the output
              charset supports it and does not add one anyway.

       --remove-signature
              Remove a U+FEFF Unicode signature character (BOM).

       -o, --output file
              Write the transcoded data to file.

CALLBACKS
       uconv supports specifying callbacks to handle invalid  data.  Callbacks
       can be set for both directions of transcoding: from the original encod-
       ing to Unicode, with the --from-callback option, and  from  Unicode  to
       the destination encoding, with the --to-callback option.

       The  following is a list of valid callback names, along with a descrip-
       tion of their behavior. The list of  callbacks  actually  supported  by
       uconv is displayed when it is called with -h, --help.

       substitute       Write  the encoding's substitute sequence, or the Uni-
                        code replacement character U+FFFD when transcoding  to
                        Unicode.

       skip             Ignore the invalid data.

       stop             Stop  with  an  error  when encountering invalid data.
                        This is the default callback.

       escape           Same as escape-icu.

       escape-icu       Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format %Uhhhh for plane 0 characters, and %Uhhhh%Uhhhh
                        for planes 1 and above characters, where hhhh  is  the
                        hexadecimal value of one of the UTF-16 code units rep-
                        resenting the character. Characters from planes 1  and
                        above  are  written as a pair of UTF-16 surrogate code
                        units.

       escape-java      Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format \uhhhh for plane 0 characters, and \uhhhh\uhhhh
                        for planes 1 and above characters, where hhhh  is  the
                        hexadecimal value of one of the UTF-16 code units rep-
                        resenting the character. Characters from planes 1  and
                        above  are  written as a pair of UTF-16 surrogate code
                        units.

       escape-c         Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format  \uhhhh  for plane 0 characters, and \Uhhhhhhhh
                        for planes 1 and above characters, where hhhh and hhh-
                        hhhhh  are the hexadecimal values of the Unicode code-
                        point.

       escape-xml       Same as escape-xml-hex.

       escape-xml-hex   Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format  &#xhhhh;,  where hhhh is the hexadecimal value
                        of the Unicode codepoint.

       escape-xml-dec   Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format &#nnnn;, where nnnn is the decimal value of the
                        Unicode codepoint.

       escape-unicode   Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the
                        format  {U+hhhh},  where hhhh is the hexadecimal value
                        of the Unicode codepoint.  That hexadecimal string  is
                        of  variable  length  and  can use from 4 to 6 digits.
                        This is the format universally used to denote  a  Uni-
                        code  codepoint  in the literature, delimited by curly
                        braces for easy recognition of those substitutions  in
                        the output.

EXAMPLES
       Convert data from a given encoding to the platform encoding:

           $ uconv -f encoding

       Check if a file contains valid data for a given encoding:

           $ uconv -f encoding -c file >/dev/null

       Convert  a UTF-8 file to a given encoding and ensure that the resulting
       text is good for any version of HTML:

           $ uconv -f utf-8 -t encoding \
               --callback escape-xml-dec file

       Display the names of the Unicode code points in a UTF-file:

           $ uconv -f utf-8 -x any-name file

       Print the name of a Unicode code point whose value is known (U+30AB  in
       this example):

           $ echo '\u30ab' | uconv -x 'hex-any; any-name'; echo
           {KATAKANA LETTER KA}{LINE FEED}
           $

       (The  names  are delimited by curly braces.  Also, the name of the line
       terminator is also displayed.)

       Normalize UTF-8 data using Unicode NFKC, remove all control characters,
       and map Katakana to Hiragana:

           $ uconv -f utf-8 -t utf-8 \
                 -x '::nfkc; [:Cc:] >; ::katakana-hiragana;'

CAVEATS AND BUGS
       uconv does report errors as occurring at the first invalid byte encoun-
       tered. This may be confusing to users of GNU  iconv(1),  which  reports
       errors  as  occurring  at  the  first  byte of an invalid sequence. For
       multi-byte character sets or encodings, this  means  that  uconv  error
       positions  may  be  at a later offset in the input stream than would be
       the case with GNU iconv(1).

       The reporting of error positions when a transliterator is used  may  be
       inaccurate  or  unavailable, in which case uconv will report the offset
       in the output stream at which the error occurred.

AUTHORS
       Jonas Utterstroem
       Yves Arrouye

VERSION
       60.2

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2000-2005 IBM, Inc. and others.

SEE ALSO
       iconv(1)

ICU MANPAGE                       2005-jul-1                          UCONV(1)

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