getnameinfo(3)



GETNAMEINFO(3)             Linux Programmer's Manual            GETNAMEINFO(3)

NAME
       getnameinfo  - address-to-name translation in protocol-independent man-
       ner

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/socket.h>
       #include <netdb.h>

       int getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
                       char *host, socklen_t hostlen,
                       char *serv, socklen_t servlen, int flags);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       getnameinfo(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _POSIX_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION
       The getnameinfo() function is the inverse of  getaddrinfo(3):  it  con-
       verts a socket address to a corresponding host and service, in a proto-
       col-independent manner.  It  combines  the  functionality  of  gethost-
       byaddr(3)  and  getservbyport(3),  but unlike those functions, getname-
       info() is reentrant and allows programs to  eliminate  IPv4-versus-IPv6
       dependencies.

       The  sa argument is a pointer to a generic socket address structure (of
       type sockaddr_in or sockaddr_in6) of size salen that holds the input IP
       address  and  port number.  The arguments host and serv are pointers to
       caller-allocated buffers (of size  hostlen  and  servlen  respectively)
       into  which getnameinfo() places null-terminated strings containing the
       host and service names respectively.

       The caller can specify  that  no  hostname  (or  no  service  name)  is
       required  by providing a NULL host (or serv) argument or a zero hostlen
       (or servlen) argument.  However, at least one of  hostname  or  service
       name must be requested.

       The flags argument modifies the behavior of getnameinfo() as follows:

       NI_NAMEREQD
              If  set,  then  an  error  is returned if the hostname cannot be
              determined.

       NI_DGRAM
              If set, then the service is datagram  (UDP)  based  rather  than
              stream  (TCP)  based.   This  is  required  for  the  few  ports
              (512-514) that have different services for UDP and TCP.

       NI_NOFQDN
              If set, return only the hostname part  of  the  fully  qualified
              domain name for local hosts.

       NI_NUMERICHOST
              If  set,  then  the  numeric  form  of the hostname is returned.
              (When not set, this will still happen in case  the  node's  name
              cannot be determined.)

       NI_NUMERICSERV
              If  set,  then  the  numeric  form  of  the  service  address is
              returned.  (When not set, this will still  happen  in  case  the
              service's name cannot be determined.)

   Extensions to getnameinfo() for Internationalized Domain Names
       Starting  with  glibc  2.3.4, getnameinfo() has been extended to selec-
       tively allow hostnames to be transparently converted to  and  from  the
       Internationalized  Domain Name (IDN) format (see RFC 3490, Internation-
       alizing Domain Names in Applications  (IDNA)).   Three  new  flags  are
       defined:

       NI_IDN If  this flag is used, then the name found in the lookup process
              is converted from IDN format to the locale's encoding if  neces-
              sary.   ASCII-only  names  are  not  affected by the conversion,
              which makes this flag usable in existing programs  and  environ-
              ments.

       NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED, NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
              Setting these flags will enable the IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED (allow
              unassigned Unicode code  points)  and  IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
              (check  output  to  make  sure it is a STD3 conforming hostname)
              flags respectively to be used in the IDNA handling.

RETURN VALUE
       On success 0 is returned, and node and service names, if requested, are
       filled  with  null-terminated  strings,  possibly  truncated to fit the
       specified buffer lengths.  On error, one of the following nonzero error
       codes is returned:

       EAI_AGAIN
              The name could not be resolved at this time.  Try again later.

       EAI_BADFLAGS
              The flags argument has an invalid value.

       EAI_FAIL
              A nonrecoverable error occurred.

       EAI_FAMILY
              The address family was not recognized, or the address length was
              invalid for the specified family.

       EAI_MEMORY
              Out of memory.

       EAI_NONAME
              The  name  does  not  resolve  for   the   supplied   arguments.
              NI_NAMEREQD  is  set  and  the host's name cannot be located, or
              neither hostname nor service name were requested.

       EAI_OVERFLOW
              The buffer pointed to by host or serv was too small.

       EAI_SYSTEM
              A system error occurred.  The error code can be found in errno.

       The gai_strerror(3) function translates these error codes  to  a  human
       readable string, suitable for error reporting.

FILES
       /etc/hosts
       /etc/nsswitch.conf
       /etc/resolv.conf

VERSIONS
       getnameinfo() is provided in glibc since version 2.1.

CONFORMING TO
       RFC 2553, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       In  order to assist the programmer in choosing reasonable sizes for the
       supplied buffers, <netdb.h> defines the constants

           #define NI_MAXHOST      1025
           #define NI_MAXSERV      32

       Since glibc 2.8, these definitions are exposed only if one of the  fea-
       ture test macros _BSD_SOURCE, _SVID_SOURCE, or _GNU_SOURCE is defined.

       The  former  is  the  constant  MAXDNAME  in  recent versions of BIND's
       <arpa/nameser.h> header file.  The latter is a guess based on the  ser-
       vices listed in the current Assigned Numbers RFC.

       Before  glibc version 2.2, the hostlen and servlen arguments were typed
       as size_t.

EXAMPLE
       The following code tries to get the numeric hostname and service  name,
       for  a given socket address.  Note that there is no hardcoded reference
       to a particular address family.

           struct sockaddr *sa;    /* input */
           socklen_t len;         /* input */
           char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST], sbuf[NI_MAXSERV];

           if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf), sbuf,
                       sizeof(sbuf), NI_NUMERICHOST | NI_NUMERICSERV) == 0)
               printf("host=%s, serv=%s\n", hbuf, sbuf);

       The following version checks  if  the  socket  address  has  a  reverse
       address mapping.

           struct sockaddr *sa;    /* input */
           socklen_t len;         /* input */
           char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST];

           if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf),
                       NULL, 0, NI_NAMEREQD))
               printf("could not resolve hostname");
           else
               printf("host=%s\n", hbuf);

       An example program using getnameinfo() can be found in getaddrinfo(3).

SEE ALSO
       accept(2),   getpeername(2),  getsockname(2),  recvfrom(2),  socket(2),
       getaddrinfo(3), gethostbyaddr(3),  getservbyname(3),  getservbyport(3),
       inet_ntop(3), hosts(5), services(5), hostname(7), named(8)

       R.  Gilligan,  S. Thomson, J. Bound and W. Stevens, Basic Socket Inter-
       face Extensions for IPv6, RFC 2553, March 1999.

       Tatsuya Jinmei and Atsushi Onoe, An Extension of Format for IPv6 Scoped
       Addresses,   internet   draft,  work  in  progress  <ftp://ftp.ietf.org
       /internet-drafts/draft-ietf-ipngwg-scopedaddr-format-02.txt>.

       Craig Metz, Protocol Independence Using the Sockets API, Proceedings of
       the freenix track: 2000 USENIX annual technical conference, June 2000
       <http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/usenix2000
       /freenix/metzprotocol.html>.

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest version of this page, can be found at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU                               2014-05-28                    GETNAMEINFO(3)

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