LOCALE(5)



LOCALE(5)                      Linux User Manual                     LOCALE(5)

NAME
       locale - describes a locale definition file

DESCRIPTION
       The  locale  definition  file  contains  all  the  information that the
       localedef(1) command needs to convert it into the binary  locale  data-
       base.

       The  definition  files consist of sections which each describe a locale
       category in detail.  See locale(7) for  additional  details  for  these
       categories.

   Syntax
       The locale definition file starts with a header that may consist of the
       following keywords:

       <escape_char>
              is followed by a character that should be used  as  the  escape-
              character  for  the  rest  of  the  file to mark characters that
              should be interpreted in a special  way.   It  defaults  to  the
              backslash (\).

       <comment_char>
              is  followed  by  a  character that will be used as the comment-
              character for the rest of the file.  It defaults to  the  number
              sign (#).

       The locale definition has one part for each locale category.  Each part
       can be copied from another existing  locale  or  can  be  defined  from
       scratch.   If  the category should be copied, the only valid keyword in
       the definition is copy followed by the name of  the  locale  in  double
       quotes  which  should  be  copied.   The  exceptions  for this rule are
       LC_COLLATE and LC_CTYPE where a  copy  statement  can  be  followed  by
       locale-specific rules and selected overrides.

       When  defining  a  category  from  scratch,  all  field descriptors and
       strings should be defined as Unicode code  points  in  angle  brackets,
       unless  otherwise  stated below.  For example, "EUR" is to be presented
       as   "<U20AC>",   "%a"   as   "<U0025><U0061>",   and    "Monday"    as
       "<U0053><U0075><U006E><U0064><U0061><U0079>".   Values  defined as Uni-
       code code points must be in double quotes, plain number values are  not
       quoted  (but LC_CTYPE and LC_COLLATE follow special formatting, see the
       system-provided locale files for examples).

   Locale category sections
       The following category sections are defined by POSIX:

       *  LC_CTYPE

       *  LC_COLLATE

       *  LC_MESSAGES

       *  LC_MONETARY

       *  LC_NUMERIC

       *  LC_TIME

       In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports the  follow-
       ing nonstandard categories:

       *  LC_ADDRESS

       *  LC_IDENTIFICATION

       *  LC_MEASUREMENT

       *  LC_NAME

       *  LC_PAPER

       *  LC_TELEPHONE

       See locale(7) for a more detailed description of each category.

   LC_ADDRESS
       The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       postal_fmt
              followed  by  a  string containing field descriptors that define
              the format used for postal addresses in the locale.  The follow-
              ing field descriptors are recognized:

              %a  Care of person, or organization.

              %f  Firm name.

              %d  Department name.

              %b  Building name.

              %s  Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name.

              %h  House number or designation.

              %N  Insert an end-of-line if the previous descriptor's value was
                  not an empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %t  Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value was not an
                  empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %r  Room number, door designation.

              %e  Floor number.

              %C  Country designation, from the <country_post> keyword.

              %z  Zip number, postal code.

              %T  Town, city.

              %S  State, province, or prefecture.

              %c  Country, as taken from data record.

              Each  field  descriptor may have an 'R' after the '%' to specify
              that the information is taken from a Romanized version string of
              the entity.

       country_name
              followed by the country name in the language of the current doc-
              ument (e.g., "Deutschland" for the de_DE locale).

       country_post
              followed by the abbreviation  of  the  country  (see  CERT_MAIL-
              CODES).

       country_ab2
              followed  by  the  two-letter  abbreviation  of the country (ISO
              3166).

       country_ab3
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of  the  country  (ISO
              3166).

       country_num
              followed  by  the  numeric  country  code  as plain numbers (ISO
              3166).

       country_car
              followed by the code for the country car number.

       country_isbn
              followed by the ISBN code (for books).

       lang_name
              followed by the language name in the  language  of  the  current
              document.

       lang_ab
              followed  by  the  two-letter  abbreviation of the language (ISO
              639).

       lang_term
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the  language  (ISO
              639-2/T).

       lang_lib
              followed  by  the  three-letter abbreviation of the language for
              library use (ISO 639-2/B).  Applications should in general  pre-
              fer lang_term over lang_lib.

       The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END LC_ADDRESS.

   LC_CTYPE
       The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       upper  followed  by a list of uppercase letters.  The letters A through
              Z are included  automatically.   Characters  also  specified  as
              cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       lower  followed  by a list of lowercase letters.  The letters a through
              z are included  automatically.   Characters  also  specified  as
              cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       alpha  followed  by  a  list  of  letters.   All character specified as
              either upper or lower are  automatically  included.   Characters
              also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       digit  followed  by  the characters classified as numeric digits.  Only
              the digits 0 through  9  are  allowed.   They  are  included  by
              default in this class.

       space  followed  by a list of characters defined as white-space charac-
              ters.  Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha,  digit,
              graph,  or  xdigit  are  not  allowed.   The characters <space>,
              <form-feed>, <newline>, <carriage-return>, <tab>, and <vertical-
              tab> are automatically included.

       cntrl  followed by a list of control characters.  Characters also spec-
              ified as upper, lower, alpha, digit,  punct,  graph,  print,  or
              xdigit are not allowed.

       punct  followed  by  a list of punctuation characters.  Characters also
              specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit,  or  the
              <space> character are not allowed.

       graph  followed  by  a  list of printable characters, not including the
              <space> character.  The  characters  defined  as  upper,  lower,
              alpha,  digit,  xdigit,  and  punct  are automatically included.
              Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed.

       print  followed by  a  list  of  printable  characters,  including  the
              <space>  character.   The  characters  defined  as upper, lower,
              alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the <space> character are auto-
              matically  included.  Characters also specified as cntrl are not
              allowed.

       xdigit followed by a list of characters classified as hexadecimal  dig-
              its.   The  decimal  digits  must be included followed by one or
              more set of six characters in ascending  order.   The  following
              characters  are included by default: 0 through 9, a through f, A
              through F.

       blank  followed by a list of characters classified as blank.  The char-
              acters <space> and <tab> are automatically included.

       charclass
              followed  by  a  list  of  locale-specific character class names
              which are then to be defined in the locale.

       toupper
              followed by a list of mappings from lowercase to uppercase  let-
              ters.   Each  mapping  is a pair of a lowercase and an uppercase
              letter separated with a , and enclosed in parentheses.  The mem-
              bers of the list are separated with semicolons.

       tolower
              followed  by a list of mappings from uppercase to lowercase let-
              ters.  If the keyword tolower is not present, the reverse of the
              toupper list is used.

       map totitle
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of characters and letters to
              be used in titles (headings).

       class  followed by a locale-specific character class definition, start-
              ing  with the class name followed by the characters belonging to
              the class.

       charconv
              followed by a list of locale-specific  character  mapping  names
              which are then to be defined in the locale.

       outdigit
              followed by a list of alternate output digits for the locale.

       map to_inpunct
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate digits and sep-
              arators for input digits for the locale.

       map to_outpunct
              followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate separators  for
              output for the locale.

       translit_start
              marks  the start of the transliteration rules section.  The sec-
              tion can contain the include keyword in the  beginning  followed
              by  locale-specific  rules and overrides.  Any rule specified in
              the locale file will override any rule copied or  included  from
              other  files.   In  case  of  duplicate  rule definitions in the
              locale file, only the first rule is used.

              A transliteration rule consist of a character to be  transliter-
              ated  followed by a list of transliteration targets separated by
              semicolons.  The first target which can be presented in the tar-
              get  character  set  is  used,  if  none of them can be used the
              default_missing character will be used instead.

       include
              in the transliteration rules section includes a  transliteration
              rule file (and optionally a repertoire map file).

       default_missing
              in the transliteration rules section defines the default charac-
              ter to be used for transliteration where  none  of  the  targets
              cannot be presented in the target character set.

       translit_end
              marks the end of the transliteration rules.

       The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE.

   LC_COLLATE
       Due to limitations of glibc not all POSIX-options are implemented.

       The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       collating-element
              followed  by the definition of a collating-element symbol repre-
              senting a multicharacter collating element.

       collating-symbol
              followed by the definition of a collating  symbol  that  can  be
              used in collation order statements.

       The order-definition starts with a line:

       order_start
              followed by a list of keywords chosen from forward, backward, or
              position.  The order definition consists of lines that  describe
              the order and is terminated with the keyword order_end.

       The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END LC_COLLATE.

   LC_IDENTIFICATION
       The  definition  starts  with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION in the first
       column.

       The values in this category are defined as plain strings.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       title  followed by the title of the locale document (e.g., "Maori  lan-
              guage locale for New Zealand").

       source followed  by  the  name  of the organization that maintains this
              document.

       address
              followed by the address of the organization that maintains  this
              document.

       contact
              followed  by  the name of the contact person at the organization
              that maintains this document.

       email  followed by the email address of the person or organization that
              maintains this document.

       tel    followed  by  the  telephone number (in international format) of
              the organization that maintains  this  document.   As  of  glibc
              2.24, this keyword is deprecated in favor of other contact meth-
              ods.

       fax    followed by the fax number  (in  international  format)  of  the
              organization  that  maintains  this document.  As of glibc 2.24,
              this keyword is deprecated in favor of other contact methods.

       language
              followed by the name of the  language  to  which  this  document
              applies.

       territory
              followed  by  the name of the country/geographic extent to which
              this document applies.

       audience
              followed by a description of the audience for which  this  docu-
              ment is intended.

       application
              followed  by  a description of any special application for which
              this document is intended.

       abbreviation
              followed by the short name for this document.

       revision
              followed by the revision number of this document.

       date   followed by the revision date of this document.

       In addition, for each of the categories defined by the document,  there
       should be a line starting with the keyword category, followed by:

       *  a string that identifies this locale category definition,

       *  a semicolon, and

       *  one of the LC_* identifiers.

       The  LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END LC_IDENTIFI-
       CATION.

   LC_MESSAGES
       The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       yesexpr
              followed by a regular expression that  describes  possible  yes-
              responses.

       noexpr followed  by  a  regular  expression that describes possible no-
              responses.

       yesstr followed by the output string corresponding to "yes".

       nostr  followed by the output string corresponding to "no".

       The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END LC_MESSAGES.

   LC_MEASUREMENT
       The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the first  col-
       umn.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       measurement
              followed  by  number  identifying the standard used for measure-
              ment.  The following values are recognized:

              1   Metric.

              2   US customary measurements.

       The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END LC_MEASUREMENT.

   LC_MONETARY
       The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the first column.

       Values   for   int_curr_symbol,   currency_symbol,   mon_decimal_point,
       mon_thousands_sep, positive_sign, and negative_sign are defined as Uni-
       code code points, the others as plain numbers.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       int_curr_symbol
              followed by the international currency symbol.  This must  be  a
              4-character  string containing the international currency symbol
              as defined by the ISO 4217 standard (three characters)  followed
              by a separator.

       currency_symbol
              followed by the local currency symbol.

       mon_decimal_point
              followed  by  the string that will be used as the decimal delim-
              iter when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as  a  group  separator
              when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_grouping
              followed  by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons that
              describe the formatting of monetary  quantities.   See  grouping
              below for details.

       positive_sign
              followed  by  a  string that is used to indicate a positive sign
              for monetary quantities.

       negative_sign
              followed by a string that is used to indicate  a  negative  sign
              for monetary quantities.

       int_frac_digits
              followed  by the number of fractional digits that should be used
              when formatting with the int_curr_symbol.

       frac_digits
              followed by the number of fractional digits that should be  used
              when formatting with the currency_symbol.

       p_cs_precedes
              followed  by  an  integer  that  indicates the placement of cur-
              rency_symbol for a nonnegative formatted monetary quantity:

              0   the symbol succeeds the value.

              1   the symbol precedes the value.

       p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates  the  separation  of  cur-
              rency_symbol,  the  sign string, and the value for a nonnegative
              formatted monetary quantity.  The following  values  are  recog-
              nized:

              0   No space separates the currency symbol and the value.

              1   If  the  currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a
                  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space sepa-
                  rates the currency symbol and the value.

              2   If  the  currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a
                  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space sepa-
                  rates the sign string and the value.

       n_cs_precedes
              followed  by  an  integer  that  indicates the placement of cur-
              rency_symbol for a negative formatted  monetary  quantity.   The
              same values are recognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       n_sep_by_space
              followed  by  an  integer  that indicates the separation of cur-
              rency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a negative for-
              matted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
              p_sep_by_space.

       p_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates  where  the  positive_sign
              should be placed for a nonnegative monetary quantity:

              0   Parentheses  enclose the quantity and the currency_symbol or
                  int_curr_symbol.

              1   The sign string precedes the quantity and the  currency_sym-
                  bol or the int_curr_symbol.

              2   The  sign string succeeds the quantity and the currency_sym-
                  bol or the int_curr_symbol.

              3   The  sign  string  precedes  the  currency_symbol   or   the
                  int_curr_symbol.

              4   The   sign   string  succeeds  the  currency_symbol  or  the
                  int_curr_symbol.

       n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates  where  the  negative_sign
              should  be  placed  for  a negative monetary quantity.  The same
              values are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

       int_p_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of  int_cur-
              rency_symbol  for  a nonnegative internationally formatted mone-
              tary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for  p_cs_pre-
              cedes.

       int_n_cs_precedes
              followed  by an integer that indicates the placement of int_cur-
              rency_symbol for a negative internationally  formatted  monetary
              quantity.  The same values are recognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       int_p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_cur-
              rency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for  a  nonnegative
              internationally  formatted  monetary  quantity.  The same values
              are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_cur-
              rency_symbol,  the  sign  string,  and  the value for a negative
              internationally formatted monetary quantity.   The  same  values
              are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_p_sign_posn
              followed  by  an  integer that indicates where the positive_sign
              should be placed for  a  nonnegative  internationally  formatted
              monetary  quantity.   The  same  values  are  recognized  as for
              p_sign_posn.

       int_n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates  where  the  negative_sign
              should  be placed for a negative internationally formatted mone-
              tary  quantity.   The  same  values  are   recognized   as   for
              p_sign_posn.

       The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END LC_MONETARY.

   LC_NAME
       The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first column.

       Various  keywords  are  allowed, but only name_fmt is mandatory.  Other
       keywords are needed only if there is common convention to use the  cor-
       responding salutation in this locale.  The allowed keywords are as fol-
       lows:

       name_fmt
              followed by a string containing field  descriptors  that  define
              the  format  used  for names in the locale.  The following field
              descriptors are recognized:

              %f  Family name(s).

              %F  Family names in uppercase.

              %g  First given name.

              %G  First given initial.

              %l  First given name with Latin letters.

              %o  Other shorter name.

              %m  Additional given name(s).

              %M  Initials for additional given name(s).

              %p  Profession.

              %s  Salutation, such as "Doctor".

              %S  Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.".

              %d  Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions.

              %t  If the preceding  field  descriptor  resulted  in  an  empty
                  string, then the empty string, otherwise a space character.

       name_gen
              followed by the general salutation for any gender.

       name_mr
              followed by the salutation for men.

       name_mrs
              followed by the salutation for married women.

       name_miss
              followed by the salutation for unmarried women.

       name_ms
              followed by the salutation valid for all women.

       The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME.

   LC_NUMERIC
       The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       decimal_point
              followed  by  the string that will be used as the decimal delim-
              iter when formatting numeric quantities.

       thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as  a  group  separator
              when formatting numeric quantities.

       grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers as plain numbers separated by
              semicolons that describe the formatting of numeric quantities.

              Each integer specifies the number of digits  in  a  group.   The
              first  integer  defines the size of the group immediately to the
              left of the decimal delimiter.  Subsequent integers define  suc-
              ceeding  groups  to the left of the previous group.  If the last
              integer is not -1, then the size of the previous group (if  any)
              is repeatedly used for the remainder of the digits.  If the last
              integer is -1, then no further grouping is performed.

       The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END LC_NUMERIC.

   LC_PAPER
       The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first column.

       Values in this category are defined as plain numbers.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       height followed by the height, in millimeters, of  the  standard  paper
              format.

       width  followed  by  the  width,  in millimeters, of the standard paper
              format.

       The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER.

   LC_TELEPHONE
       The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       tel_int_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that  iden-
              tify the format used to dial international numbers.  The follow-
              ing field descriptors are recognized:

              %a  Area code without nationwide prefix  (the  prefix  is  often
                  "00").

              %A  Area code including nationwide prefix.

              %l  Local number (within area code).

              %e  Extension (to local number).

              %c  Country code.

              %C  Alternate carrier service code used for dialing abroad.

              %t  If  the  preceding  field  descriptor  resulted  in an empty
                  string, then the empty string, otherwise a space character.

       tel_dom_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that  iden-
              tify  the  format used to dial domestic numbers.  The recognized
              field descriptors are the same as for tel_int_fmt.

       int_select
              followed by the prefix used to call international phone numbers.

       int_prefix
              followed by the prefix used from other countries  to  dial  this
              country.

       The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END LC_TELEPHONE.

   LC_TIME
       The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       abday  followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of the week.
              The list starts with the first day of the week as  specified  by
              week (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

       day    followed  by  a list of names of the days of the week.  The list
              starts with the first day of the week as specified by week (Sun-
              day by default).  See NOTES.

       abmon  followed by a list of abbreviated month names.

       mon    followed by a list of month names.

       d_t_fmt
              followed  by  the  appropriate date and time format (for syntax,
              see strftime(3)).

       d_fmt  followed by the appropriate date format (for syntax,  see  strf-
              time(3)).

       t_fmt  followed  by  the appropriate time format (for syntax, see strf-
              time(3)).

       am_pm  followed by the appropriate representation  of  the  am  and  pm
              strings.   This should be left empty for locales not using AM/PM
              convention.

       t_fmt_ampm
              followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax,  see  strf-
              time(3)) when using 12h clock format.  This should be left empty
              for locales not using AM/PM convention.

       era    followed by semicolon-separated strings that  define  how  years
              are  counted  and  displayed  for  each era in the locale.  Each
              string has the following format:

              direction:offset:start_date:end_date:era_name:era_format

              The fields are to be defined as follows:

              direction
                  Either + or -.  + means the years closer to start_date  have
                  lower  numbers  than  years closer to end_date.  - means the
                  opposite.

              offset
                  The number of the year closest to  start_date  in  the  era,
                  corresponding to the %Ey descriptor (see strptime(3)).

              start_date
                  The start of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd.  Years prior
                  AD 1 are represented as negative numbers.

              end_date
                  The end of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd, or one of  the
                  two special values of -* or +*.  -* means the ending date is
                  the beginning of time.  +* means the ending date is the  end
                  of time.

              era_name
                  The name of the era corresponding to the %EC descriptor (see
                  strptime(3)).

              era_format
                  The format of the year in the era corresponding to  the  %EY
                  descriptor (see strptime(3)).

       era_d_fmt
              followed  by the format of the date in alternative era notation,
              corresponding to the %Ex descriptor (see strptime(3)).

       era_t_fmt
              followed by the format of the time in alternative era  notation,
              corresponding to the %EX descriptor (see strptime(3)).

       era_d_t_fmt
              followed  by  the format of the date and time in alternative era
              notation, corresponding to the %Ec descriptor (see strptime(3)).

       alt_digits
              followed by the alternative digits used for date and time in the
              locale.

       week   followed  by a list of three values as plain numbers: The number
              of days in a week (by default 7), a date  of  beginning  of  the
              week  (by default corresponds to Sunday), and the minimal length
              of the first week in year (by default 4).  Regarding  the  start
              of  the  week,  19971130  shall  be used for Sunday and 19971201
              shall be used for Monday.  See NOTES.

       first_weekday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed by the number of the first day from the day list to  be
              shown  in  calendar applications.  The default value of 1 (plain
              number) corresponds to either Sunday or Monday depending on  the
              value of the second week list item.  See NOTES.

       first_workday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed  by  the  number  of the first working day from the day
              list.  The default value is 2 (plain number).  See NOTES.

       cal_direction
              followed by a plain number value that  indicates  the  direction
              for the display of calendar dates, as follows:

              1   Left-right from top.

              2   Top-down from left.

              3   Right-left from top.

       date_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date representation for date(1) (for
              syntax, see strftime(3)).

       The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.

FILES
       /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
              Usual default locale archive location.

       /usr/share/i18n/locales
              Usual default path for locale definition files.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.2, ISO/IEC TR 14652.

NOTES
       The collective GNU C library community  wisdom  regarding  abday,  day,
       week,   first_weekday,  and  first_workday  states  at  https://source-
       ware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following:

       *  The value of the second week list item specifies  the  base  of  the
          abday and day lists.

       *  first_weekday  specifies  the offset of the first day-of-week in the
          abday and day lists.

       *  For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set the value of
          the  second  week  list item to 19971130 (Sunday) and base the abday
          and day lists appropriately, and set first_weekday and first_workday
          to  1  or  2,  depending  on whether the week and work week actually
          starts on Sunday or Monday for the locale.

SEE ALSO
       iconv(1), locale(1), localedef(1), localeconv(3), newlocale(3),  setlo-
       cale(3),    strftime(3),    strptime(3),    uselocale(3),   charmap(5),
       charsets(7), locale(7), unicode(7), utf-8(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 4.05 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                             2016-03-15                         LOCALE(5)

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