LOCALE(5)



LOCALE(5)                      Linux User Manual                     LOCALE(5)

NAME
       locale - describes a locale definition file

DESCRIPTION
       The  locale  definition  file  contains  all  the  information that the
       localedef(1) command needs to convert it into the binary  locale  data-
       base.

       The  definition  files consist of sections which each describe a locale
       category in detail.

   Syntax
       The locale definition file starts with a header that may consist of the
       following keywords:

       <escape_char>
              is  followed  by  a character that should be used as the escape-
              character for the rest of  the  file  to  mark  characters  that
              should  be  interpreted  in  a  special way.  It defaults to the
              backslash (\).

       <comment_char>
              is followed by a character that will be  used  as  the  comment-
              character  for  the rest of the file.  It defaults to the number
              sign (#).

       The locale definition has one part for each locale category.  Each part
       can  be  copied  from  another  existing  locale or can be defined from
       scratch.  If the category should be copied, the only valid  keyword  in
       the  definition is copy followed by the name of the locale which should
       be copied.

   Locale category sections
       The following category sections are defined by POSIX:

       *  LC_CTYPE

       *  LC_COLLATE

       *  LC_MESSAGES

       *  LC_MONETARY

       *  LC_NUMERIC

       *  LC_TIME

       In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports the  follow-
       ing nonstandard categories:

       *  LC_ADDRESS

       *  LC_IDENTIFICATION

       *  LC_MEASUREMENT

       *  LC_NAME

       *  LC_PAPER

       *  LC_TELEPHONE

   LC_ADDRESS
       The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       postal_fmt
              followed  by  a  string containing field descriptors that define
              the format used for postal addresses in the locale.  The follow-
              ing field descriptors are recognized:

              %a     Care of person, or organization.

              %f     Firm name.

              %d     Department name.

              %b     Building name.

              %s     Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name.

              %h     House number or designation.

              %N     Insert  an end-of-line if the previous descriptor's value
                     was not an empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %t     Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value was not
                     an empty string; otherwise ignore.

              %r     Room number, door designation.

              %e     Floor number.

              %C     Country designation, from the <country_post> keyword.

              %z     Zip number, postal code.

              %T     Town, city.

              %S     State, province, or prefecture.

              %c     Country, as taken from data record.

              Each  field  descriptor may have an 'R' after the '%' to specify
              that the information is taken from a Romanized version string of
              the entity.

       country_name
              followed by the country name in the language of the current doc-
              ument (e.g., "Deutschland" for the de_DE locale).

       country_post
              followed by the abbreviation  of  the  country  (see  CERT_MAIL-
              CODES).

       country_ab2
              followed  by  the  two-letter  abbreviation  of the country (ISO
              3166).

       country_ab3
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of  the  country  (ISO
              3166).

       country_num
              followed by the numeric country code (ISO 3166).

       country_car
              followed by the code for the country car number.

       country_isbn
              followed by the ISBN code (for books).

       lang_name
              followed  by  the  language  name in the language of the current
              document.

       lang_ab
              followed by the two-letter abbreviation  of  the  language  (ISO
              639).

       lang_term
              followed  by  the three-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO
              639-2/T).

       lang_lib
              followed by the three-letter abbreviation of  the  language  for
              library  use (ISO 639-2/B).  Applications should in general pre-
              fer lang_term over lang_lib.

       The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END LC_ADDRESS.

   LC_CTYPE
       The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       upper  followed by a list of uppercase letters.  The letters A  through
              Z  are  included  automatically.   Characters  also specified as
              cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       lower  followed by a list of lowercase letters.  The letters a  through
              z  are  included  automatically.   Characters  also specified as
              cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       alpha  followed by a list  of  letters.   All  character  specified  as
              either  upper  or  lower are automatically included.  Characters
              also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed.

       digit  followed by the characters classified as numeric  digits.   Only
              the  digits  0  through  9  are  allowed.   They are included by
              default in this class.

       space  followed by a list of characters defined as white-space  charac-
              ters.   Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit,
              graph, or xdigit  are  not  allowed.   The  characters  <space>,
              <form-feed>, <newline>, <carriage-return>, <tab>, and <vertical-
              tab> are automatically included.

       cntrl  followed by a list of control characters.  Characters also spec-
              ified  as  upper,  lower,  alpha, digit, punct, graph, print, or
              xdigit are not allowed.

       punct  followed by a list of punctuation characters.   Characters  also
              specified  as  upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit, or the
              <space> character are not allowed.

       graph  followed by a list of printable characters,  not  including  the
              <space>  character.   The  characters  defined  as upper, lower,
              alpha, digit, xdigit,  and  punct  are  automatically  included.
              Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed.

       print  followed  by  a  list  of  printable  characters,  including the
              <space> character.  The  characters  defined  as  upper,  lower,
              alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the <space> character are auto-
              matically included.  Characters also specified as cntrl are  not
              allowed.

       xdigit followed  by a list of characters classified as hexadecimal dig-
              its.  The decimal digits must be included  followed  by  one  or
              more  set  of  six characters in ascending order.  The following
              characters are included by default: 0 through 9, a through f,  A
              through F.

       blank  followed by a list of characters classified as blank.  The char-
              acters <space> and <tab> are automatically included.

       toupper
              followed by a list of mappings from lowercase to uppercase  let-
              ters.   Each  mapping  is a pair of a lowercase and an uppercase
              letter separated with a , and enclosed in parentheses.  The mem-
              bers of the list are separated with semicolons.

       tolower
              followed  by a list of mappings from uppercase to lowercase let-
              ters.  If the keyword tolower is not present, the reverse of the
              toupper list is used.

       The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE.

   LC_COLLATE
       The  LC_COLLATE  category  defines  the rules for collating characters.
       Due to limitations of libc not all POSIX-options are implemented.

       The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       collating-element
              followed by the definition of a collating-element symbol  repre-
              senting a multicharacter collating element.

       collating-symbol
              followed  by  the  definition  of a collating symbol that can be
              used in collation order statements.

       The order-definition starts with a line:

       order_start
              followed by a list of keywords chosen from forward, backward, or
              position.   The order definition consists of lines that describe
              the order and is terminated with the keyword order_end.

       The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END LC_COLLATE.

   LC_IDENTIFICATION
       This category contains meta-information about the locale definition.

       The definition starts with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION  in  the  first
       column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       title  followed  by the title of the locale document (e.g., "Maori lan-
              guage locale for New Zealand").

       source followed by the name of the  organization  that  maintains  this
              document.

       address
              followed  by the address of the organization that maintains this
              document.

       contact
              followed by the name of the contact person at  the  organization
              that maintains this document.

       email  followed by the email address of the person or organization that
              maintains this document.

       tel    followed by the telephone number (in  international  format)  of
              the organization that maintains this document.

       fax    followed  by  the  fax  number  (in international format) of the
              organization that maintains this document.

       language
              followed by the name of the  language  to  which  this  document
              applies.

       territory
              followed  by  the name of the country/geographic extent to which
              this document applies.

       audience
              followed by a description of the audience for which  this  docu-
              ment is intended.

       application
              followed  by  a description of any special application for which
              this document is intended.

       abbreviation
              followed by the short name for this document.

       revision
              followed by the revision number of this document.

       date   followed by the revision date of this document.

       In addition, for each of the categories defined by the document,  there
       should be a line starting with the keyword category, followed by:

       *  a string that identifies this locale category definition,

       *  a semicolon, and

       *  one of the LC_* identifiers.

       The  LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END LC_IDENTIFI-
       CATION.

   LC_MESSAGES
       The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       yesexpr
              followed by a regular expression that  describes  possible  yes-
              responses.

       noexpr followed  by  a  regular  expression that describes possible no-
              responses.

       yesstr followed by the output string corresponding to "yes".

       nostr  followed by the output string corresponding to "no".

       The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END LC_MESSAGES.

   LC_MEASUREMENT
       The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the first  col-
       umn.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       measurement
              followed  by  number  identifying the standard used for measure-
              ment.  The following values are recognized:

              1      Metric.

              2      US customary measurements.

       The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END LC_MEASUREMENT.

   LC_MONETARY
       The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       int_curr_symbol
              followed by the international currency symbol.  This must  be  a
              4-character  string containing the international currency symbol
              as defined by the ISO 4217 standard (three characters)  followed
              by a separator.

       currency_symbol
              followed by the local currency symbol.

       mon_decimal_point
              followed  by  the string that will be used as the decimal delim-
              iter when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_thousands_sep
              followed by the string that will be used as  a  group  separator
              when formatting monetary quantities.

       mon_grouping
              followed  by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons that
              describe the formatting of monetary  quantities.   See  grouping
              below for details.

       positive_sign
              followed  by  a  string that is used to indicate a positive sign
              for monetary quantities.

       negative_sign
              followed by a string that is used to indicate  a  negative  sign
              for monetary quantities.

       int_frac_digits
              followed  by the number of fractional digits that should be used
              when formatting with the int_curr_symbol.

       frac_digits
              followed by the number of fractional digits that should be  used
              when formatting with the currency_symbol.

       p_cs_precedes
              followed  by  an  integer  that  indicates the placement of cur-
              rency_symbol for a nonnegative formatted monetary quantity:

              0      the symbol succeeds the value.

              1      the symbol precedes the value.

       n_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that  indicates  the  placement  of  cur-
              rency_symbol  for  a  negative formatted monetary quantity.  The
              same values are recognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       int_p_cs_precedes
              followed by an integer that indicates the placement of  int_cur-
              rency_symbol  for  a nonnegative internationally formatted mone-
              tary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for  p_cs_pre-
              cedes.

       int_n_cs_precedes
              followed  by an integer that indicates the placement of int_cur-
              rency_symbol for a negative internationally  formatted  monetary
              quantity.  The same values are recognized as for p_cs_precedes.

       p_sep_by_space
              followed  by  an  integer  that indicates the separation of cur-
              rency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for  a  nonnegative
              formatted  monetary  quantity.   The following values are recog-
              nized:

              0      No space separates the currency symbol and the value.

              1      If the currency symbol and the sign string are  adjacent,
                     a  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space
                     separates the currency symbol and the value.

              2      If the currency symbol and the sign string are  adjacent,
                     a  space separates them from the value; otherwise a space
                     separates the sign string and the value.

       n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates  the  separation  of  cur-
              rency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a negative for-
              matted monetary quantity.  The same values are recognized as for
              p_sep_by_space.

       int_p_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_cur-
              rency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for  a  nonnegative
              internationally  formatted  monetary  quantity.  The same values
              are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       int_n_sep_by_space
              followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_cur-
              rency_symbol,  the  sign  string,  and  the value for a negative
              internationally formatted monetary quantity.   The  same  values
              are recognized as for p_sep_by_space.

       p_sign_posn
              followed  by  an  integer that indicates where the positive_sign
              should be placed for a nonnegative monetary quantity:

              0      Parentheses enclose the quantity and the  currency_symbol
                     or int_curr_symbol.

              1      The  sign  string  precedes  the  quantity  and  the cur-
                     rency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

              2      The sign  string  succeeds  the  quantity  and  the  cur-
                     rency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol.

              3      The  sign  string  precedes  the  currency_symbol  or the
                     int_curr_symbol.

              4      The sign  string  succeeds  the  currency_symbol  or  the
                     int_curr_symbol.

       n_sign_posn
              followed  by  an  integer that indicates where the negative_sign
              should be placed for a negative  monetary  quantity.   The  same
              values are recognized as for p_sign_posn.

       int_p_sign_posn
              followed  by  an  integer that indicates where the negative_sign
              should be placed for  a  nonnegative  internationally  formatted
              monetary  quantity.   The  same  values  are  recognized  as for
              p_sign_posn.

       int_n_sign_posn
              followed by an integer that indicates  where  the  negative_sign
              should  be placed for a negative internationally formatted mone-
              tary  quantity.   The  same  values  are   recognized   as   for
              p_sign_posn.

       The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END LC_MONETARY.

   LC_NAME
       The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first column.

       Various  keywords  are  allowed, but only name_fmt is mandatory.  Other
       keywords are needed only if there is common convention to use the  cor-
       responding salutation in this locale.  The allowed keywords are as fol-
       lows:

       name_fmt
              followed by a string containing field  descriptors  that  define
              the  format  used  for names in the locale.  The following field
              descriptors are recognized:

              %f     Family name(s).

              %F     Family names in uppercase.

              %g     First given name.

              %G     First given initial.

              %l     First given name with Latin letters.

              %o     Other shorter name.

              %m     Additional given name(s).

              %M     Initials for additional given name(s).

              %p     Profession.

              %s     Salutation, such as "Doctor".

              %S     Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.".

              %d     Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions.

              %t     If the preceding field descriptor resulted  in  an  empty
                     string,  then the empty string, otherwise a space charac-
                     ter.

       name_gen
              followed by the general salutation for any gender.

       name_mr
              followed by the salutation for men.

       name_mrs
              followed by the salutation for married women.

       name_miss
              followed by the salutation for unmarried women.

       name_ms
              followed by the salutation valid for all women.

       The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME.

   LC_NUMERIC
       The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       decimal_point
              followed by the string that will be used as the  decimal  delim-
              iter when formatting numeric quantities.

       thousands_sep
              followed  by  the  string that will be used as a group separator
              when formatting numeric quantities.

       grouping
              followed by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons  that
              describe the formatting of numeric quantities.

              Each  integer  specifies  the  number of digits in a group.  The
              first integer defines the size of the group immediately  to  the
              left  of the decimal delimiter.  Subsequent integers define suc-
              ceeding groups to the left of the previous group.  If  the  last
              integer  is not -1, then the size of the previous group (if any)
              is repeatedly used for the remainder of the digits.  If the last
              integer is -1, then no further grouping is performed.

       The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END LC_NUMERIC.

   LC_PAPER
       The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       height followed  by  the  height, in millimeters, of the standard paper
              format.

       width  followed by the width, in millimeters,  of  the  standard  paper
              format.

       The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER.

   LC_TELEPHONE
       The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       tel_int_fmt
              followed  by a string that contains field descriptors that iden-
              tify the format used to dial international numbers.  The follow-
              ing field descriptors are recognized:

              %a     Area  code without nationwide prefix (the prefix is often
                     "00").

              %A     Area code including nationwide prefix.

              %l     Local number (within area code).

              %e     Extension (to local number).

              %c     Country code.

              %C     Alternate carrier service code used for dialing abroad.

              %t     If the preceding field descriptor resulted  in  an  empty
                     string,  then the empty string, otherwise a space charac-
                     ter.

       tel_dom_fmt
              followed by a string that contains field descriptors that  iden-
              tify  the  format used to dial domestic numbers.  The recognized
              field descriptors are the same as for tel_int_fmt.

       int_select
              followed by the prefix used to call international phone numbers.

       int_prefix
              followed by the prefix used from other countries  to  dial  this
              country.

       The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END LC_TELEPHONE.

   LC_TIME
       The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first column.

       The following keywords are allowed:

       abday  followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of the week.
              The list starts with the first day of the week as  specified  by
              week (Sunday by default).  See NOTES.

       day    followed  by  a list of names of the days of the week.  The list
              starts with the first day of the week as specified by week (Sun-
              day by default).  See NOTES.

       abmon  followed by a list of abbreviated month names.

       mon    followed by a list of month names.

       am_pm  followed  by  the  appropriate  representation  of the am and pm
              strings.  This should be left empty for locales not using  AM/PM
              convention.

       d_t_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date and time format.

       d_fmt  followed by the appropriate date format.

       t_fmt  followed by the appropriate time format.

       t_fmt_ampm
              followed  by  the  appropriate  time format when using 12h clock
              format.  This should be left empty for locales not  using  AM/PM
              convention.

       week   followed by a list of three values: The number of days in a week
              (by default 7), a date of beginning of the week (by default cor-
              responds to Sunday), and the minimal length of the first week in
              year (by default 4).  Regarding the start of the week,  19971130
              shall  be used for Sunday and 19971201 shall be used for Monday.
              See NOTES.

       first_weekday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed by the number of the first day from the day list to  be
              shown  in  calendar applications.  The default value of 1 corre-
              sponds to either Sunday or Monday depending on the value of  the
              second week list item.  See NOTES.

       first_workday (since glibc 2.2)
              followed  by  the  number  of the first working day from the day
              list.  The default value is 2.  See NOTES.

       cal_direction
              followed by a value that indicates the direction for the display
              of calendar dates, as follows:

              1      Left-right from top.

              2      Top-down from left.

              3      Right-left from top.

       date_fmt
              followed by the appropriate date representation for date(1).

       The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.

FILES
       /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
              Usual default locale archive location.

       /usr/share/i18n/locales
              Usual default path for locale definition files.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.2, ISO/IEC TR 14652.

NOTES
       The  collective  GNU  C  library community wisdom regarding abday, day,
       week,  first_weekday,  and  first_workday  states  at   https://source-
       ware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following:

       *  The  value  of  the  second week list item specifies the base of the
          abday and day lists.

       *  first_weekday specifies the offset of the first day-of-week  in  the
          abday and day lists.

       *  For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set the value of
          the second week list item to 19971130 (Sunday) and  base  the  abday
          and  day  lists  appropriately,  and  set  first_weekday  to 1 or 2,
          depending on whether the week actually starts on  Sunday  or  Monday
          for the locale.

BUGS
       This manual page isn't complete.

SEE ALSO
       locale(1),  localedef(1),  localeconv(3),  newlocale(3),  setlocale(3),
       uselocale(3), charmap(5), charsets(7), locale(7), unicode(7), utf-8(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                             2014-06-13                         LOCALE(5)

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