terminfo(5)                      File Formats                      terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs   such   as   nvi(1),   rogue(1)   and   libraries   such   as
       ncurses(3NCURSES).   Terminfo  describes  terminals  by giving a set of
       capabilities which they have, by specifying how to perform screen oper-
       ations,  and  by  specifying  padding  requirements  and initialization
       sequences.  This describes ncurses version 6.1 (patch 20180714).

   Terminfo Entry Syntax
       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of fields:

       o   Each field ends with a comma "," (embedded commas  may  be  escaped
           with a backslash or written as "\054").

       o   White space between fields is ignored.

       o   The first field in a terminfo entry begins in the first column.

       o   Newlines  and  leading  whitespace (spaces or tabs) may be used for
           formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from  parsed

           The  infocmp  -f and -W options rely on this to format if-then-else
           expressions, or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting  for-
           matted terminal description can be read by tic.

       o   The  first  field for each terminal gives the names which are known
           for the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the termi-
           nal  (its  primary name), the last name given should be a long name
           fully identifying the terminal (see longname(3X)), and  all  others
           are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open  Curses  advises  that  all  names but the last should be in
           lower case and contain no blanks; the last name  may  well  contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This  implementation  is not so strict; it allows mixed case in the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it  allows  that  to  be both an alias and a verbose name (but will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       o   Lines beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as  com-

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo
           and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments  so  they  occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal  names  (except  for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This name
       should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user
       preferences,  should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suf-
       fix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The following
       suffixes should be used where possible:

            Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
            -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Terminfo Capabilities Syntax
       The  terminfo  entry  consists  of several capabilities, i.e., features
       that the terminal has, or methods for exercising  the  terminal's  fea-

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more capability fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       o   Boolean  capabilities  are  true  when  present, false when absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       o   Numeric capabilities  have  a  "#"  following  the  name,  then  an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       o   String  capabilities  have a "=" following the name, then an string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String capabilities can be split into multiple lines, just  as  the
           fields  comprising  a  terminal  entry  can  be split into multiple
           lines.  While blanks between fields are  ignored,  blanks  embedded
           within  a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on a

       Any capability can be canceled,  i.e.,  suppressed  from  the  terminal
       entry, by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)  with  certain  excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal:

       o   The capabilities given before use override those in the  base  type
           named by use.

       o   If  there are multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse
           order.  That is, the rightmost use reference  is  processed  first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       o   Capabilities  given  explicitly in the entry override those brought
           in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence  that  imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence  does  not  turn  on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a  terminal,  or  for  different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via use can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the same effect as if those cancels were inline in the  using  terminal

   Predefined Capabilities
       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by  which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by  a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded  by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                  Booleans            name      Code
          auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from col-
                                                       umn 0 to last column
          auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has auto-
                                                       matic margins
          back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                       background color
          can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can re-
                                                       define existing col-
          ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                       by overwriting (hp)
          col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                       for hpa/mhpa caps

          cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                       pitch changes reso-
          cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                       micro mode
          dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                       magic so char
          eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                       after 80 cols (con-
          erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase over-
                                                       strikes with a blank
          generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
          hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
          hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
          has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                       (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
          has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs opera-
                                                       tor to change char-
                                                       acter set
          has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
          hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                       HLS color notation
          insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode distin-
                                                       guishes nulls
          lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                       changes resolution
          memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                       retained above the
          memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                       retained below the
          move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                       in insert mode
          move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                       in standout mode
          needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                       work, xon/xoff
          no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                       f2=ctrl C)
          no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                       not exist
          non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
          non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                       reverse rmcup
          over_strike                 os        os     terminal can over-
          prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                       echo on screen
          row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                       for vpa/mvpa caps
          semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                       column causes cr
          status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                       on the status line
          tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s

          transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
          xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                       xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   Numeric            name      Code
          columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                       a line
          init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                       # spaces
          label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
          label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
          lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                       screen or page
          lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if >
                                                       line. 0 means varies
          magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                       characters left by
                                                       smso or rmso
          max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                       attributes terminal
                                                       can handle
          max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                       colors on screen
          max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                       color-pairs on the
          maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                       definable windows
          no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                       that cannot be used
                                                       with colors
          num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
          padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                       where padding needed
          virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                       number (CB/unix)
          width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                       status line

       The following numeric capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but  are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   Numeric            name      Code
          bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                       each bit-image row
          bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
          buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                       buffered before
          buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
          dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots hor-
                                                       izontally in dots
                                                       per inch

          dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins ver-
                                                       tically in pins per
          max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
          max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
          micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                       when in micro mode
          micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                       in micro mode
          number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
          output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
          output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
          output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per line
          output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per inch
          print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in char-
                                                       acters per second
          wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                       when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   String             name      Code
          acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                       pairs, based on
          back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
          bell                        bel       bl     audible signal
                                                       (bell) (P)
          carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
          change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                       characters per inch
                                                       to #1
          change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of
                                                       lines per inch to #1
          change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                       resolution to #1
          change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical res-
                                                       olution to #1
          change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to
                                                       line #1 to line #2
          char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                       insert mode
          clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
          clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                       soft margins
          clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and
                                                       home cursor (P*)
          clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning
                                                       of line

          clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
          clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of
                                                       screen (P*)
          column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                       #1, absolute (P)
          command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable
                                                       cmd character in
                                                       prototype !?
          create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                       from #2,#3 to #4,#5
          cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1 col-
                                                       umns #2
          cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
          cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
          cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor invisi-
          cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
          cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative cur-
                                                       sor addressing, move
                                                       to row #1 columns #2
          cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                       normal (undo
          cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive
                                                       space (move right
                                                       one space)
          cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                       column (if no cup)
          cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
          cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
          define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character
                                                       #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                       descender #3
          delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character
          delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
          dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
          dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
          display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
          down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
          ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate
                                                       char set
          enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                       character set (P)
          enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
          enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking
          enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                       bright) mode
          enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
          enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
          enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide
          enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
          enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
          enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
          enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward car-
                                                       riage motion

          enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
          enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
          enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
          enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected
          enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse
                                                       video mode
          enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
                                                       (characters invisi-
          enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
          enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
          enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
          enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript
          enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
          enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward car-
                                                       riage motion
          enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
          erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
          exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate char-
                                                       acter set (P)
          exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
          exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
          exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
          exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
          exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
          exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
          exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
          exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion
          exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print
          exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
          exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
          exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
          exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
          exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse charac-
                                                       ter motion
          exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff
          fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3 sec-
          flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
          flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may
                                                       not move cursor)
          form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal
                                                       page eject (P*)
          from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
          goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
          hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
          init_1string                is1       i1     initialization
          init_2string                is2       is     initialization

          init_3string                is3       i3     initialization
          init_file                   if        if     name of initializa-
                                                       tion file
          init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                       for initialization
          initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1
                                                       to (#2,#3,#4)
          initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color
                                                       pair #1 to
          insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
          insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
          insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                       inserted character
          key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
          key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of key-
          key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
          key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
          key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
          key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
          key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
          key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of key-
          key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
          key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
          key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or
                                                       erase key
          key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
          key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
          key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
          key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
          key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
          key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
          key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
          key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
          key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                       in insert mode
          key_end                     kend      @7     end key
          key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
          key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
          key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-
                                                       screen key
          key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
          key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
          key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
          key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key
          key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
          key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
          key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
          key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
          key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
          key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
          key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key
          key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
          key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
          key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
          key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
          key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
          key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
          key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
          key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key

          key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
          key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
          key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
          key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
          key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
          key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
          key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
          key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
          key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
          key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
          key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
          key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
          key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
          key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
          key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
          key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
          key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
          key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
          key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
          key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
          key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
          key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
          key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
          key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
          key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
          key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
          key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
          key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
          key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
          key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
          key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
          key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
          key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
          key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
          key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
          key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
          key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
          key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
          key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
          key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
          key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
          key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
          key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
          key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
          key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
          key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
          key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
          key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
          key_home                    khome     kh     home key
          key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key
          key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
          key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
          key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
          key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
          key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
          key_move                    kmov      %4     move key
          key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
          key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
          key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
          key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
          key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
          key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
          key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
          key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key

          key_reference               kref      &1     reference key
          key_refresh                 krfr      &2     refresh key
          key_replace                 krpl      &3     replace key
          key_restart                 krst      &4     restart key
          key_resume                  kres      &5     resume key
          key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
          key_save                    ksav      &6     save key
          key_sbeg                    kBEG      &9     shifted begin key
          key_scancel                 kCAN      &0     shifted cancel key
          key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
          key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
          key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
          key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted delete-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
          key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
          key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
          key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted clear-to-
                                                       end-of-line key
          key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
          key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
          key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
          key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
          key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
          key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted insert-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow
          key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
          key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
          key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
          key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
          key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
          key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
          key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
          key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
          key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
          key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
          key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
          key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
          key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
          key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
          key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
          key_suspend                 kspd      &7     suspend key
          key_undo                    kund      &8     undo key
          key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key
          keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function
                                                       key f0 if not f0
          lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function
                                                       key f1 if not f1
          lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function
                                                       key f10 if not f10
          lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function
                                                       key f2 if not f2
          lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function
                                                       key f3 if not f3
          lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function
                                                       key f4 if not f4

          lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function
                                                       key f5 if not f5
          lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function
                                                       key f6 if not f6
          lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function
                                                       key f7 if not f7
          lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function
                                                       key f8 if not f8
          lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function
                                                       key f9 if not f9
          label_format                fln       Lf     label format
          label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
          label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
          meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
          meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                       (8th-bit on)
          micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                       micro mode
          newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                       cr followed by lf)
          order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits
                                                       to print-head pins
          orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs
                                                       to the original ones
          orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                       its original value
          pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char
                                                       (instead of null)
          parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
          parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like parm_down_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters
          parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                       lines (P)
          parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
          parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters
                                                       to the left (P)
          parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like parm_left_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters
                                                       to the right (P*)
          parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like parm_right_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
          parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
          parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                       #1 to type string #2

          pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                       #1 to execute string
          pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                       #1 to transmit
                                                       string #2
          plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                       show string #2
          print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
          prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for
                                                       #1 bytes
          prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
          prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
          pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
          quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1 with-
                                                       out checking
          remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
          repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                       times (P*)
          req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                       (for ptys)
          reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
          reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
          reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
          reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
          restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                       position of last
          row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                       absolute (P)
          save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                       position (P)
          scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
          scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
          select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character
                                                       set, #1
          set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                       attributes #1-#9
          set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
          set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                       current line
          set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                       line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                       is not given) #2
                                                       lines from bottom
          set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                       mins #3 secs
          set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color
                                                       pair to #1
          set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
          set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                       at current col-
                                                       umn.     See smgl.
                                                       (ML is not in BSD
          set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                       margin at column #1
          set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft mar-
                                                       gin at current col-

          set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                       column #1
          set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                       row, current columns
          set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                       current line
          set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                       margin at row #1
          set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                       lines #1-#2 cols
          start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                       definition #1, with
                                                       #2 characters in the
          stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                       character set #1
          subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of subscript-
                                                       able characters
          superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of superscript-
                                                       able characters
          tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                       hardware tab stop
          these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of
                                                       these characters
                                                       causes CR
          to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                       column #1
          tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
          underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                       move past it
          up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
          user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
          user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
          user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
          user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
          user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
          user5                       u5        u5     User string #5
          user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
          user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
          user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
          user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
          wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
          xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
          xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
          zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for subse-
                                                       quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

                  Variable            Cap-       TCap      Description
                   String             name       Code
          alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                        for scancode emu-
          bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                        of same row

          bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                        of the bit image
          bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                        cell #1 #2 times
          char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                        from list of char-
                                                        acter set names
          code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                        multiple codesets
          color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                        color #1
          define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                        bit image region
          device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate lan-
                                                        guage/codeset sup-
          display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC charac-
                                                        ter #1
          end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
          enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                        display mode
          enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
          exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                        display mode
          exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
          get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                        button events,
                                                        parameter #1 not
          key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
          mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
          pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
          pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                        key #1 to type
                                                        string #2 and show
                                                        string #3
          req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
          scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for scan-
                                                        code emulation
          set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                        (EUC set 0, ASCII)
          set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
          set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
          set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
          set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
          set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
          set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                        color #1
          set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                        right margins to
                                                        #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                        not in BSD term-

          set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                        #1 lines
          set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                        bottom margins to
                                                        #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They  were
        used  in  some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5
        and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the ncurses termcap names for  them  are
        invented.   According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no termcap
        names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may  not  be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                  Variable            Cap-      TCap       Description
                   String             name      Code
          enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                       highlight mode
          enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
          enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
          enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right high-
                                                       light mode
          enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
          enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical high-
                                                       light mode
          set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                       video attributes
          set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                       #1 hundredth of an
                                                       inch (some implemen-
                                                       tations use sL for

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The  preceding  section  listed the predefined capabilities.  They deal
       with some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly  never)
       produced.   Occasionally  there are special features of newer terminals
       which are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the  predefined

       ncurses  addresses  this  limitation by allowing user-defined capabili-
       ties.  The tic and infocmp programs provide the -x option for this pur-
       pose.  When -x is set, tic treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.
       That is, if tic encounters a capability name which it does  not  recog-
       nize,  it  infers  its type (boolean, number or string) from the syntax
       and  makes  an  extended  table  entry  for   that   capability.    The
       use_extended_names(3X)  function  makes  this information conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data leav-
       ing most of the behavior to applications:

       o   User-defined  capability  strings  whose  name  begins with "k" are
           treated as function keys.

       o   The types (boolean,  number,  string)  determined  by  tic  can  be
           inferred by successful calls on tigetflag, etc.

       o   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a prede-
       fined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the capa-
       bilities defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule,  user-defined
       capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to booleans and numbers to avoid  running  past  the  1023  byte  limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In particu-
       lar, providing extended sets of function keys  (past  the  60  numbered
       keys  and  the  handful  of  special named keys) is best done using the
       longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in terminfo are of three types:

       o   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some par-
           ticular feature,

       o   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       o   string capabilities, which give a sequence which  can  be  used  to
           perform particular terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  "#" and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value  "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string  valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character  code,  an  "=",  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there:

       o   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character,

       o   ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and

       o   the sequences

             \n, \l, \r, \t, \b, \f, and \s


             newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space,


       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate x" might be.  In practice,
       that  is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?" is
       interpreted as DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character  value  is
       AND'd  with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0 through

       Other escapes include

       o   \^ for ^,

       o   \\ for \,

       o   \, for comma,

       o   \: for :,

       o   and \0 for null.

           \0 will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as  a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
           See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain  binary  compatibility  of
           the  compiled  terminfo files with other implementations, e.g., the
           SVr4 systems, which document this.   Compiled  terminfo  files  use
           null-terminated  strings,  with  no  lengths.  Modifying this would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other imple-

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are supplied by tputs(3X) to provide this delay.

       o   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of preci-
           sion; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       o   A "*" indicates that the padding required is  proportional  to  the
           number  of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is
           the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In  the  case  of  insert
           character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       o   A "/" suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and  forces  a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To  do  this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The ncurses library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions  in  several
       places.   It  uses only the first description found.  The library has a
       compiled-in list of places to search which can be overridden  by  envi-
       ronment  variables.   Before  starting  to  search,  ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       o   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is  interpreted  as
           the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
           are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       o   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the  directory
           $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.

       o   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses
           will interpret the contents of that variable as a  list  of  colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An  empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with
           a colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the  system
           location /etc/terminfo.

       o   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           o   a list of directories (no default value), and

           o   the  system  terminfo directory, /etc/terminfo (the compiled-in

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to  build  up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
       a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,  then
       this  is  given  by the clear string capability.  If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a  character  is  struck
       over)  then  it  should  have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use "cuf1= " because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left  edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of  the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It
       does not matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string  capability,  with  printf-
       like escapes such as %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the
       cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row  and  column  to
       address  to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal  has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs "%"

            as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a ":" to allow the
            next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as  an

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not  reset  between calls to tparm(3X).  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
            from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into  lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are  in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted  here, and that the row and column are
       printed   as   two   digits.     Thus    its    cup    capability    is

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  ^T,  with  the  row   and   column   simply   encoded   in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals  which  use  "%c"  need  to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (cuu1).   This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
       transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.   (The
       library  routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       "\E=",  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous  values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the  terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
       hp2645)  and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the  right)  these  can  be
       given  as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the  terminal  does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by  terminfo.   If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen
       after an rmcup sequence is output (to the  state  prior  to  outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If  the  terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it  is,  this  should  be
       given  as  el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.   Ed  is  only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the  terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is  done  only  from  the
       first  position  of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command  to  set  this  can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the  cursor.   (Note  that  the  ncurses(3NCURSES)
       library  does  this  synthesis  automatically,  so you need not compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can  also  be  done
       using  ri  or  ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow  is  effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the  region  by  the  ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind,  ri,  indn,  and
       rin  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses  implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndsrc is

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory  can  be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are  two  basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described  using  terminfo.   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting  upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands
       for "insert null".

       While these are two logically  separate  attributes  (one  line  versus
       multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described  with  the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
       sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
       terminals  which  send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an  entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in  insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to  speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting  mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by  giving
       smdc  and  rmdc  to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  n  blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)  invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

               tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

               none                 none             \E[0m
               p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
               p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
               p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
               p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
               p5                   dim              not available
               p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
               p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
               p8                   protect          not used
               p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220  termi-
       nal  has  a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also  is  different  in  that  it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that  is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

            sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

            \E[0                 always              \E[0
            ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
            ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
            ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
            ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
            ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
            m                    always              m
            ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember  that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not  all  ter-
       minfo  entries  necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit  special  "cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.  Some  ter-
       minals,  such  as  the  HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.   Programs  using
       standout  mode  should  exit  standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the msgr capability,  asserting  that  it  is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If  the  terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as flash;  it  must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as  civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates  underlined  characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  a  character  overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters  on the screen, specify the capability os.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the  terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is  not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up  arrow,  down  arrow,
       and  home  keys  can  be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes  they  send  can  be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the  labels  can  be
       given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       o   kll (home down),

       o   kbs (backspace),

       o   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       o   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       o   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       o   kdch1 (delete character),

       o   kdl1 (delete line),

       o   krmir (exit insert mode),

       o   kel (clear to end of line),

       o   ked (clear to end of screen),

       o   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       o   kil1 (insert line),

       o   knp (next page),

       o   kpp (previous page),

       o   kind (scroll forward/down),

       o   kri (scroll backward/up),

       o   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if  the  keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given  as  ka1,  ka3,  kb2,
       kc1,  and  kc3.   These  keys  are  useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string;  pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop can be given as ht (usually control I).  A "back-tab" command
       which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
       convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded
       by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
       not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user may not have
       the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware  tabs  which
       are  initially  set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the
       numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spaces  the  tabs
       are  set  to.   This  is normally used by the tset command to determine
       whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to  set
       the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-
       volatile memory, the terminfo description  can  assume  that  they  are
       properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize  the  terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set  the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the follow-
       ing order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
       set  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the  reset  program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part  of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not
       normally needed since the terminal is  usually  already  in  80  column

       The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
       any  of  rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF  or  DTR
       handshaking,  including  hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding  char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host  when  its  input  buffers  are
       close  to  full),  set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices  effec-
       tively  that  do  not  have  a speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no  padding  baud  rate,  then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some  terminals  have an extra "status line" which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
       of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and curses have built-in support for most of the drawing char-
       acters supported by the VT100,  with  some  characters  from  the  AT&T
       4410v1  added.   This  alternate  character set may be specified by the
       acsc capability.

         Glyph                       ACS            Ascii     acsc     acsc
         Name                        Name           Default   Char     Value
         arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     >         +        0x2b
         arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     <         ,        0x2c
         arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
         arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
         solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
         diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
         checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
         degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
         plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
         board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68
         lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69

         lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
         upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
         upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
         lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
         large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
         scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
         scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
         horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
         scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
         scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
         tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
         tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
         tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
         tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
         vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
         less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     <         y        0x79
         greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     >         z        0x7a
         greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
         not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
         UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
         bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       o   X/Open Curses incorrectly states that the mapping  for  lantern  is
           uppercase  "I"  although Unix implementations use the lowercase "i"

       o   The DEC VT100 implemented graphics using  the  alternate  character
           set  feature, temporarily switching modes and sending characters in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the acsc Value column in the ta-

       o   The AT&T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some  of  the  characters  within the range do not match the VT100;
           presumably they were used in the AT&T terminal:  board  of  squares
           replaces  the  VT100  newline symbol, while lantern symbol replaces
           the VT100 vertical tab symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters  (horizontal tab, carriage return and line-feed) are not
           (re)used in curses.

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a  column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will  be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       The curses library functions init_pair and  init_color  manipulate  the
       color   pairs   and   color  values  discussed  in  this  section  (see
       curs_color(3X) for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       o   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.

       o   On HP-like terminals, the user must set each color  pair  up  sepa-
           rately  (foreground and background are not independently settable).
           Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-
           compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs  that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent background color rather  than  the  power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       While the curses library works with color pairs (reflecting the inabil-
       ity of some devices to set foreground and  background  colors  indepen-
       dently), there are separate capabilities for setting these features:

       o   To  change  the  current  foreground  or background color on a Tek-
           tronix-type terminal, use setaf (set  ANSI  foreground)  and  setab
           (set  ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set back-
           ground).  These take one parameter, the  color  number.   The  SVr4
           documentation  describes only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that
           "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to  set  background
           and  foreground,  they  should be coded as setaf and setab, respec-

       o   If the terminal supports other escape sequences to  set  background
           and  foreground,  they  should  be  coded as setf and setb, respec-
           tively.  The vidputs and the refresh(3X) functions  use  the  setaf
           and setab capabilities if they are defined.

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argu-
       ment each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined  as
       follows  (the  middle  column  is the symbolic #define available in the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware  is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                    red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number  parameter  to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the color values to be modified:

       o   On  a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to
           indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc  capability
           will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters
           which describe the color.  These three parameters default to  being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capa-
           bility hls is present, they are instead  as  HLS  (Hue,  Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       o   On  an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair num-
           ber  (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first back-
           ground and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be  (Red,
           Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                  Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                  A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                  A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                  A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                  A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                  A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                  A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                  A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                  A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                  A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                  A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                  A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                  A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                  A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                  A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                  A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                  A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and  optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application  may  set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this  as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a  command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number  of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can  be  indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character  is  given
       in  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of  known
       terminal,  such  as  switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which  the  escape  sequences  are

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be  indicated  with
       km.   Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it
       will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode"  on
       and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A  value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of  the  screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the  printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which  ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout  (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is  now  "dest_tabs_magic_smso";  in  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to erase stand-
       out mode it is instead necessary to use delete and  insert  line.   The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1  key  is  used
       for  escape  and  f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo  versions,
       this capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other  specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,  no  entry
       has  even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.  Unfor-
       tunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly  limited  (to
       1023  bytes),  thus  termcap  translations of long terminfo entries can
       cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions  of  tgetent  instruct  the
       user  to  allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry
       gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the  maximum
       safe  length  for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what
       the application and the termcap library being used does, and  where  in
       the  termcap  file  the terminal type that tgetent is searching for is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find  an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs  allocate  more  than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each  termcap  entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
       "tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability  that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The  "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
       affects more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is  the
       length  of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now

       o   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       o   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       o   and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU)  reads
           the  whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       o   and tgetent is searching for a terminal type  that  either  is  the
           long  entry,  appears  in the termcap file after the long entry, or
           does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent has  to  search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent  will  overwrite  memory, perhaps its stack, and probably
       core dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly  vulnera-
       ble;  modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type automati-
       cally.  The results are almost as undesirable with a  termcap  library,
       like  SunOS  4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it
       reads an overly long termcap entry.  If  a  termcap  library  truncates
       long  entries,  like  OSF/1  3.0,  it  is immune to dying here but will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will  have  a  similar  effect  to  the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since tgetent only does "tc" expansion once it is  found  the  terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In  summary,  a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
       on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications,  a  core
       dump,  warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even before
       "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of  some  other
       terminal  types  and  users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses  implementation  of
       tic(1)  issues  warning  messages  when  the pre-tc length of a termcap
       translation is too long.  The -c (check) option  also  checks  resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is  not  wise  to  count  on portability of binary terminfo entries
       between commercial UNIX versions.  The problem is  that  there  are  at
       least  two  versions  of  terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged
       from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added  extension  capabili-
       ties  to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Searching  for  terminal  descriptions  in  $HOME/.terminfo  and   TER-
       MINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement  while  in  an
       alternate-character-set  mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters  that  do  not  trigger  local  motions).   The
       ncurses  implementation  ignores  msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite  inter-
       pretation  may  need  terminfo  entries  made  for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in  a  slightly  non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
       documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses  library  wants
       to  interpret  it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like
       xterm that can return mouse-tracking information in the  keyboard-input

       X/Open  Curses  does  not  mention italics.  Portable applications must
       assume that  numeric  capabilities  are  signed  16-bit  values.   This
       includes  the  no_color_video  (ncv)  capability.  The 32768 mask value
       used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent  or  cancelled
       ncv.   If  italics  should work with colors, then the ncv value must be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       o   SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       o   SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (set_pglen).

       o   SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capa-
           bilities.  The  booleans  end  with  xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with
           width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       o   HP/UX  --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus the SVr[234] numerics
           num_labels,  label_height,  label_width,  plus  function  keys   11
           through  63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,  and label_off, plus some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       o   AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through  63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       o   OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /etc/terminfo/?/*        files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1),   infocmp(1),  ncurses(3NCURSES),  color(3NCURSES),  printf(3),
       term(5).  terminfo_variables(3NCURSES).  user_caps(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.


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