inotify(7)



INOTIFY(7)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                INOTIFY(7)

NAME
       inotify - monitoring filesystem events

DESCRIPTION
       The  inotify API provides a mechanism for monitoring filesystem events.
       Inotify can be used to monitor individual files, or to monitor directo-
       ries.   When  a  directory is monitored, inotify will return events for
       the directory itself, and for files inside the directory.

       The following system calls are used with this API:

       *  inotify_init(2) creates an  inotify  instance  and  returns  a  file
          descriptor  referring to the inotify instance.  The more recent ino-
          tify_init1(2) is like inotify_init(2), but has a flags argument that
          provides access to some extra functionality.

       *  inotify_add_watch(2) manipulates the "watch list" associated with an
          inotify instance.  Each item ("watch") in the watch  list  specifies
          the  pathname  of a file or directory, along with some set of events
          that the kernel should monitor for the  file  referred  to  by  that
          pathname.   inotify_add_watch(2) either creates a new watch item, or
          modifies an existing watch.  Each watch has a unique "watch descrip-
          tor",  an integer returned by inotify_add_watch(2) when the watch is
          created.

       *  When events occur for monitored files and directories, those  events
          are made available to the application as structured data that can be
          read from the inotify file descriptor using read(2) (see below).

       *  inotify_rm_watch(2) removes an item from an inotify watch list.

       *  When all file descriptors referring to an inotify instance have been
          closed (using close(2)), the underlying object and its resources are
          freed for reuse by the kernel; all associated watches are  automati-
          cally freed.

       With careful programming, an application can use inotify to efficiently
       monitor and cache the state of a set of filesystem  objects.   However,
       robust applications should allow for the fact that bugs in the monitor-
       ing logic or races of the kind described  below  may  leave  the  cache
       inconsistent  with  the filesystem state.  It is probably wise to to do
       some consistency checking, and rebuild the cache  when  inconsistencies
       are detected.

   Reading events from an inotify file descriptor
       To  determine  what  events have occurred, an application read(2)s from
       the inotify file descriptor.  If no events have so far occurred,  then,
       assuming  a blocking file descriptor, read(2) will block until at least
       one event occurs (unless interrupted by a signal,  in  which  case  the
       call fails with the error EINTR; see signal(7)).

       Each  successful read(2) returns a buffer containing one or more of the
       following structures:

           struct inotify_event {
               int      wd;       /* Watch descriptor */
               uint32_t mask;     /* Mask describing event */
               uint32_t cookie;   /* Unique cookie associating related
                                     events (for rename(2)) */
               uint32_t len;      /* Size of name field */
               char     name[];   /* Optional null-terminated name */
           };

       wd identifies the watch for which this event occurs.  It is one of  the
       watch descriptors returned by a previous call to inotify_add_watch(2).

       mask contains bits that describe the event that occurred (see below).

       cookie  is  a  unique  integer that connects related events.  Currently
       this is used only for rename events, and allows the resulting  pair  of
       IN_MOVED_FROM  and  IN_MOVED_TO  events to be connected by the applica-
       tion.  For all other event types, cookie is set to 0.

       The name field is present only when an event is  returned  for  a  file
       inside a watched directory; it identifies the file pathname relative to
       the watched directory.   This  pathname  is  null-terminated,  and  may
       include  further null bytes ('\0') to align subsequent reads to a suit-
       able address boundary.

       The len field counts all of the  bytes  in  name,  including  the  null
       bytes; the length of each inotify_event structure is thus sizeof(struct
       inotify_event)+len.

       The behavior when the buffer given to read(2) is too  small  to  return
       information about the next event depends on the kernel version: in ker-
       nels before 2.6.21, read(2) returns 0;  since  kernel  2.6.21,  read(2)
       fails with the error EINVAL.  Specifying a buffer of size

           sizeof(struct inotify_event) + NAME_MAX + 1

       will be sufficient to read at least one event.

   inotify events
       The  inotify_add_watch(2)  mask argument and the mask field of the ino-
       tify_event structure returned when read(2)ing an inotify file  descrip-
       tor  are both bit masks identifying inotify events.  The following bits
       can be specified in mask when calling inotify_add_watch(2) and  may  be
       returned in the mask field returned by read(2):

           IN_ACCESS (+)
                  File was accessed (e.g., read(2), execve(2)).

           IN_ATTRIB (*)
                  Metadata changed--for example, permissions (e.g., chmod(2)),
                  timestamps (e.g., utimensat(2)), extended attributes  (setx-
                  attr(2)), link count (since Linux 2.6.25; e.g., for the tar-
                  get of link(2) and for unlink(2)), and user/group ID  (e.g.,
                  chown(2)).

           IN_CLOSE_WRITE (+)
                  File opened for writing was closed.

           IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE (*)
                  File or directory not opened for writing was closed.

           IN_CREATE (+)
                  File/directory  created  in watched directory (e.g., open(2)
                  O_CREAT, mkdir(2), link(2), symlink(2), bind(2)  on  a  UNIX
                  domain socket).

           IN_DELETE (+)
                  File/directory deleted from watched directory.

           IN_DELETE_SELF
                  Watched file/directory was itself deleted.  (This event also
                  occurs if an object is moved to  another  filesystem,  since
                  mv(1)  in effect copies the file to the other filesystem and
                  then deletes it from the original filesystem.)  In addition,
                  an  IN_IGNORED  event will subsequently be generated for the
                  watch descriptor.

           IN_MODIFY (+)
                  File was modified (e.g., write(2), truncate(2)).

           IN_MOVE_SELF
                  Watched file/directory was itself moved.

           IN_MOVED_FROM (+)
                  Generated for the directory containing the old filename when
                  a file is renamed.

           IN_MOVED_TO (+)
                  Generated for the directory containing the new filename when
                  a file is renamed.

           IN_OPEN (*)
                  File or directory was opened.

       When monitoring a directory:

       *  the events marked above with an asterisk (*) can occur both for  the
          directory itself and for objects inside the directory; and

       *  the events marked with a plus sign (+) occur only for objects inside
          the directory (not for the directory itself).

       When events are generated for objects inside a watched  directory,  the
       name  field in the returned inotify_event structure identifies the name
       of the file within the directory.

       The IN_ALL_EVENTS macro is defined as a bit mask of all  of  the  above
       events.   This macro can be used as the mask argument when calling ino-
       tify_add_watch(2).

       Two additional convenience macros are defined:

           IN_MOVE
                  Equates to IN_MOVED_FROM | IN_MOVED_TO.

           IN_CLOSE
                  Equates to IN_CLOSE_WRITE | IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE.

       The following further bits can be specified in mask when  calling  ino-
       tify_add_watch(2):

           IN_DONT_FOLLOW (since Linux 2.6.15)
                  Don't dereference pathname if it is a symbolic link.

           IN_EXCL_UNLINK (since Linux 2.6.36)
                  By default, when watching events on the children of a direc-
                  tory, events are generated for children even after they have
                  been  unlinked from the directory.  This can result in large
                  numbers of uninteresting events for some applications (e.g.,
                  if  watching  /tmp, in which many applications create tempo-
                  rary files whose names are immediately unlinked).   Specify-
                  ing  IN_EXCL_UNLINK  changes  the  default behavior, so that
                  events are not generated for children after they  have  been
                  unlinked from the watched directory.

           IN_MASK_ADD
                  If a watch instance already exists for the filesystem object
                  corresponding to pathname, add (OR) the events  in  mask  to
                  the watch mask (instead of replacing the mask).

           IN_ONESHOT
                  Monitor  the filesystem object corresponding to pathname for
                  one event, then remove from watch list.

           IN_ONLYDIR (since Linux 2.6.15)
                  Only watch pathname if it is a directory.  Using  this  flag
                  provides  an  application  with  a race-free way of ensuring
                  that the monitored object is a directory.

       The following bits may be set in the mask field returned by read(2):

           IN_IGNORED
                  Watch was removed explicitly (inotify_rm_watch(2)) or  auto-
                  matically  (file  was deleted, or filesystem was unmounted).
                  See also BUGS.

           IN_ISDIR
                  Subject of this event is a directory.

           IN_Q_OVERFLOW
                  Event queue overflowed (wd is -1 for this event).

           IN_UNMOUNT
                  Filesystem containing  watched  object  was  unmounted.   In
                  addition, an IN_IGNORED event will subsequently be generated
                  for the watch descriptor.

   Examples
       Suppose an application is watching  the  directory  dir  and  the  file
       dir/myfile  for  all  events.  The examples below show some events that
       will be generated for these two objects.

           fd = open("dir/myfile", O_RDWR);
                  Generates IN_OPEN events for both dir and dir/myfile.

           read(fd, buf, count);
                  Generates IN_ACCESS events for both dir and dir/myfile.

           write(fd, buf, count);
                  Generates IN_MODIFY events for both dir and dir/myfile.

           fchmod(fd, mode);
                  Generates IN_ATTRIB events for both dir and dir/myfile.

           close(fd);
                  Generates IN_CLOSE_WRITE events for both dir and dir/myfile.

       Suppose an application is watching the directories dir1 and  dir2,  and
       the file dir1/myfile.  The following examples show some events that may
       be generated.

           link("dir1/myfile", "dir2/new");
                  Generates an IN_ATTRIB event for  myfile  and  an  IN_CREATE
                  event for dir2.

           rename("dir1/myfile", "dir2/myfile");
                  Generates  an  IN_MOVED_FROM  event for dir1, an IN_MOVED_TO
                  event for dir2, and an IN_MOVE_SELF event for  myfile.   The
                  IN_MOVED_FROM  and  IN_MOVED_TO  events  will  have the same
                  cookie value.

       Suppose that dir1/xx and dir2/yy are (the only) links to the same file,
       and  an application is watching dir1, dir2, dir1/xx, and dir2/yy.  Exe-
       cuting the following calls in the order given below will  generate  the
       following events:

           unlink("dir2/yy");
                  Generates  an IN_ATTRIB event for xx (because its link count
                  changes) and an IN_DELETE event for dir2.

           unlink("dir1/xx");
                  Generates IN_ATTRIB, IN_DELETE_SELF, and  IN_IGNORED  events
                  for xx, and an IN_DELETE event for dir1.

       Suppose  an  application  is watching the directory dir and (the empty)
       directory dir/subdir.  The following examples show some events that may
       be generated.

           mkdir("dir/new", mode);
                  Generates an IN_CREATE | IN_ISDIR event for dir.

           rmdir("dir/subdir");
                  Generates  IN_DELETE_SELF  and IN_IGNORED events for subdir,
                  and an IN_DELETE | IN_ISDIR event for dir.

   /proc interfaces
       The following interfaces can be used to limit the amount of kernel mem-
       ory consumed by inotify:

       /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_queued_events
              The  value  in  this file is used when an application calls ino-
              tify_init(2) to set an upper limit on the number of events  that
              can  be queued to the corresponding inotify instance.  Events in
              excess of this limit are dropped, but an IN_Q_OVERFLOW event  is
              always generated.

       /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_instances
              This specifies an upper limit on the number of inotify instances
              that can be created per real user ID.

       /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_watches
              This specifies an upper limit on the number of watches that  can
              be created per real user ID.

VERSIONS
       Inotify  was merged into the 2.6.13 Linux kernel.  The required library
       interfaces were  added  to  glibc  in  version  2.4.   (IN_DONT_FOLLOW,
       IN_MASK_ADD, and IN_ONLYDIR were added in glibc version 2.5.)

CONFORMING TO
       The inotify API is Linux-specific.

NOTES
       Inotify file descriptors can be monitored using select(2), poll(2), and
       epoll(7).  When an event is available, the file descriptor indicates as
       readable.

       Since  Linux  2.6.25,  signal-driven  I/O notification is available for
       inotify file descriptors; see the discussion of  F_SETFL  (for  setting
       the  O_ASYNC  flag), F_SETOWN, and F_SETSIG in fcntl(2).  The siginfo_t
       structure (described in sigaction(2)) that is passed to the signal han-
       dler  has  the  following  fields set: si_fd is set to the inotify file
       descriptor number; si_signo is set to the signal number; si_code is set
       to POLL_IN; and POLLIN is set in si_band.

       If  successive  output  inotify  events  produced  on  the inotify file
       descriptor are identical (same wd, mask, cookie, and name),  then  they
       are  coalesced  into a single event if the older event has not yet been
       read (but see BUGS).  This reduces the amount of kernel memory required
       for  the event queue, but also means that an application can't use ino-
       tify to reliably count file events.

       The events returned by reading from an inotify file descriptor form  an
       ordered  queue.  Thus, for example, it is guaranteed that when renaming
       from one directory to another, events will be produced in  the  correct
       order on the inotify file descriptor.

       The  FIONREAD  ioctl(2)  returns  the number of bytes available to read
       from an inotify file descriptor.

   Limitations and caveats
       The inotify API provides no information about the user or process  that
       triggered the inotify event.  In particular, there is no easy way for a
       process that is monitoring events via  inotify  to  distinguish  events
       that  it  triggers  itself  from those that are triggered by other pro-
       cesses.

       Inotify reports only events that a user-space program triggers  through
       the  filesystem API.  As a result, it does not catch remote events that
       occur on network filesystems.  (Applications must fall back to  polling
       the  filesystem  to  catch  such events.)  Furthermore, various pseudo-
       filesystems such as /proc, /sys, and /dev/pts are not monitorable  with
       inotify.

       The  inotify  API  does not report file accesses and modifications that
       may occur because of mmap(2), msync(2), and munmap(2).

       The inotify API identifies affected files by filename.  However, by the
       time  an  application  processes  an  inotify  event,  the filename may
       already have been deleted or renamed.

       The inotify API identifies events via watch  descriptors.   It  is  the
       application's  responsibility  to  cache  a  mapping (if one is needed)
       between watch descriptors  and  pathnames.   Be  aware  that  directory
       renamings may affect multiple cached pathnames.

       Inotify  monitoring  of directories is not recursive: to monitor subdi-
       rectories under a directory, additional watches must be created.   This
       can take a significant amount time for large directory trees.

       If  monitoring  an  entire directory subtree, and a new subdirectory is
       created in that tree or an existing  directory  is  renamed  into  that
       tree,  be  aware that by the time you create a watch for the new subdi-
       rectory, new files (and subdirectories) may already  exist  inside  the
       subdirectory.  Therefore, you may want to scan the contents of the sub-
       directory immediately after adding the watch (and, if  desired,  recur-
       sively add watches for any subdirectories that it contains).

       Note that the event queue can overflow.  In this case, events are lost.
       Robust applications should handle the possibility of lost events grace-
       fully.   For example, it may be necessary to rebuild part or all of the
       application cache.  (One simple, but possibly expensive, approach is to
       close  the  inotify file descriptor, empty the cache, create a new ino-
       tify file descriptor, and then re-create watches and cache entries  for
       the objects to be monitored.)

   Dealing with rename() events
       As  noted  above,  the IN_MOVED_FROM and IN_MOVED_TO event pair that is
       generated by rename(2) can be matched up via their shared cookie value.
       However, the task of matching has some challenges.

       These  two events are usually consecutive in the event stream available
       when reading from the inotify file descriptor.  However,  this  is  not
       guaranteed.   If multiple processes are triggering events for monitored
       objects, then (on rare occasions) an arbitrary number of  other  events
       may  appear between the IN_MOVED_FROM and IN_MOVED_TO events.  Further-
       more, it is not guaranteed that the event pair is  atomically  inserted
       into  the  queue: there may be a brief interval where the IN_MOVED_FROM
       has appeared, but the IN_MOVED_TO has not.

       Matching up the IN_MOVED_FROM and IN_MOVED_TO event pair  generated  by
       rename(2)  is thus inherently racy.  (Don't forget that if an object is
       renamed outside of a monitored directory, there  may  not  even  be  an
       IN_MOVED_TO  event.)  Heuristic approaches (e.g., assume the events are
       always consecutive) can be used to ensure a match in  most  cases,  but
       will  inevitably  miss  some cases, causing the application to perceive
       the IN_MOVED_FROM and IN_MOVED_TO events as being unrelated.  If  watch
       descriptors  are destroyed and re-created as a result, then those watch
       descriptors will be inconsistent with  the  watch  descriptors  in  any
       pending  events.  (Re-creating the inotify file descriptor and rebuild-
       ing the cache may be useful to deal with this scenario.)

       Applications  should  also  allow  for   the   possibility   that   the
       IN_MOVED_FROM  event  was  the  last event that could fit in the buffer
       returned  by  the  current  call  to  read(2),  and  the   accompanying
       IN_MOVED_TO  event  might  be  fetched  only on the next read(2), which
       should be done with a (small) timeout to allow for the fact that inser-
       tion  of  the  IN_MOVED_FROM-IN_MOVED_TO  event pair is not atomic, and
       also the possibility that there may not be any IN_MOVED_TO event.

BUGS
       In kernels before 2.6.16, the IN_ONESHOT mask flag does not work.

       As originally designed and implemented, the  IN_ONESHOT  flag  did  not
       cause  an  IN_IGNORED  event to be generated when the watch was dropped
       after one event.  However, as an unintended effect  of  other  changes,
       since Linux 2.6.36, an IN_IGNORED event is generated in this case.

       Before  kernel  2.6.25,  the  kernel code that was intended to coalesce
       successive identical events (i.e., the two  most  recent  events  could
       potentially  be  coalesced  if the older had not yet been read) instead
       checked if the most recent event could be  coalesced  with  the  oldest
       unread event.

       When  a  watch descriptor is removed by calling inotify_rm_watch(2) (or
       because a watch file is deleted or the filesystem that contains  it  is
       unmounted),  any pending unread events for that watch descriptor remain
       available to read.  As watch  descriptors  are  subsequently  allocated
       with  inotify_add_watch(2), the kernel cycles through the range of pos-
       sible watch descriptors (0 to INT_MAX) incrementally.  When  allocating
       a  free  watch  descriptor,  no check is made to see whether that watch
       descriptor number has any pending unread events in the  inotify  queue.
       Thus,  it  can  happen that a watch descriptor is reallocated even when
       pending unread events exist for a previous incarnation  of  that  watch
       descriptor number, with the result that the application might then read
       those events and interpret them as belonging  to  the  file  associated
       with  the newly recycled watch descriptor.  In practice, the likelihood
       of hitting this bug may be extremely low, since  it  requires  that  an
       application  cycle  through  INT_MAX watch descriptors, release a watch
       descriptor while leaving unread events for that watch descriptor in the
       queue,  and  then  recycle that watch descriptor.  For this reason, and
       because there have been no reports of the bug occurring  in  real-world
       applications, as of Linux 3.15, no kernel changes have yet been made to
       eliminate this possible bug.

EXAMPLE
       The following program demonstrates the usage of the  inotify  API.   It
       marks  the directories passed as a command-line arguments and waits for
       events of type IN_OPEN, IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE and IN_CLOSE_WRITE.

       The  following   output   was   recorded   while   editing   the   file
       /home/user/temp/foo  and  listing  directory /tmp.  Before the file and
       the directory were opened, IN_OPEN events occurred.  After the file was
       closed,  an  IN_CLOSE_WRITE  event  occurred.   After the directory was
       closed, an IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE event occurred.  Execution of  the  program
       ended when the user pressed the ENTER key.

   Example output
           $ ./a.out /tmp /home/user/temp
           Press enter key to terminate.
           Listening for events.
           IN_OPEN: /home/user/temp/foo [file]
           IN_CLOSE_WRITE: /home/user/temp/foo [file]
           IN_OPEN: /tmp/ [directory]
           IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE: /tmp/ [directory]

           Listening for events stopped.

   Program source
       #include <errno.h>
       #include <poll.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <sys/inotify.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       /* Read all available inotify events from the file descriptor 'fd'.
          wd is the table of watch descriptors for the directories in argv.
          argc is the length of wd and argv.
          argv is the list of watched directories.
          Entry 0 of wd and argv is unused. */

       static void
       handle_events(int fd, int *wd, int argc, char* argv[])
       {
           /* Some systems cannot read integer variables if they are not
              properly aligned. On other systems, incorrect alignment may
              decrease performance. Hence, the buffer used for reading from
              the inotify file descriptor should have the same alignment as
              struct inotify_event. */

           char buf[4096]
               __attribute__ ((aligned(__alignof__(struct inotify_event))));
           const struct inotify_event *event;
           int i;
           ssize_t len;
           char *ptr;

           /* Loop while events can be read from inotify file descriptor. */

           for (;;) {

               /* Read some events. */

               len = read(fd, buf, sizeof buf);
               if (len == -1 && errno != EAGAIN) {
                   perror("read");
                   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
               }

               /* If the nonblocking read() found no events to read, then
                  it returns -1 with errno set to EAGAIN. In that case,
                  we exit the loop. */

               if (len <= 0)
                   break;

               /* Loop over all events in the buffer */

               for (ptr = buf; ptr < buf + len;
                       ptr += sizeof(struct inotify_event) + event->len) {

                   event = (const struct inotify_event *) ptr;

                   /* Print event type */

                   if (event->mask & IN_OPEN)
                       printf("IN_OPEN: ");
                   if (event->mask & IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE)
                       printf("IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE: ");
                   if (event->mask & IN_CLOSE_WRITE)
                       printf("IN_CLOSE_WRITE: ");

                   /* Print the name of the watched directory */

                   for (i = 1; i < argc; ++i) {
                       if (wd[i] == event->wd) {
                           printf("%s/", argv[i]);
                           break;
                       }
                   }

                   /* Print the name of the file */

                   if (event->len)
                       printf("%s", event->name);

                   /* Print type of filesystem object */

                   if (event->mask & IN_ISDIR)
                       printf(" [directory]\n");
                   else
                       printf(" [file]\n");
               }
           }
       }

       int
       main(int argc, char* argv[])
       {
           char buf;
           int fd, i, poll_num;
           int *wd;
           nfds_t nfds;
           struct pollfd fds[2];

           if (argc < 2) {
               printf("Usage: %s PATH [PATH ...]\n", argv[0]);
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           printf("Press ENTER key to terminate.\n");

           /* Create the file descriptor for accessing the inotify API */

           fd = inotify_init1(IN_NONBLOCK);
           if (fd == -1) {
               perror("inotify_init1");
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           /* Allocate memory for watch descriptors */

           wd = calloc(argc, sizeof(int));
           if (wd == NULL) {
               perror("calloc");
               exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
           }

           /* Mark directories for events
              - file was opened
              - file was closed */

           for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
               wd[i] = inotify_add_watch(fd, argv[i],
                                         IN_OPEN | IN_CLOSE);
               if (wd[i] == -1) {
                   fprintf(stderr, "Cannot watch '%s'\n", argv[i]);
                   perror("inotify_add_watch");
                   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
               }
           }

           /* Prepare for polling */

           nfds = 2;

           /* Console input */

           fds[0].fd = STDIN_FILENO;
           fds[0].events = POLLIN;

           /* Inotify input */

           fds[1].fd = fd;
           fds[1].events = POLLIN;

           /* Wait for events and/or terminal input */

           printf("Listening for events.\n");
           while (1) {
               poll_num = poll(fds, nfds, -1);
               if (poll_num == -1) {
                   if (errno == EINTR)
                       continue;
                   perror("poll");
                   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
               }

               if (poll_num > 0) {

                   if (fds[0].revents & POLLIN) {

                       /* Console input is available. Empty stdin and quit */

                       while (read(STDIN_FILENO, &buf, 1) > 0 && buf != '\n')
                           continue;
                       break;
                   }

                   if (fds[1].revents & POLLIN) {

                       /* Inotify events are available */

                       handle_events(fd, wd, argc, argv);
                   }
               }
           }

           printf("Listening for events stopped.\n");

           /* Close inotify file descriptor */

           close(fd);

           free(wd);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       inotifywait(1), inotifywatch(1), inotify_add_watch(2), inotify_init(2),
       inotify_init1(2), inotify_rm_watch(2), read(2), stat(2), fanotify(7)

       Documentation/filesystems/inotify.txt in the Linux kernel source tree

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux                             2014-09-06                        INOTIFY(7)

Man(1) output converted with man2html
list of all man pages