lsof(8)



LSOF(8)                     System Manager's Manual                    LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [  -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-E ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s]  ]  [
       -i  [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ]
       [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w
       ] [ -x [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision 4.89 lists on its standard output file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 8.[234], 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u  option,  UNIX  domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won't be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging  to  processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u
          option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID),  specified  with  the  -g
          option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the  (`^')  negated  TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with
          the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or AND-
       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:  the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though its placement there is accept-
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the  ANDing  of  all  selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process  identifiers,  user  identifiers,  zone  names,
       security  contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the result participates  in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb,  -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,  and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of
       files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND  have  network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options  may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However,  since  values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x
       and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing  the  -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option
       with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is  a  file
       name,  follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F --
       name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be  stated  as  ``+Mi''  and  the  group means the same as the separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These  two  equivalent  options  select  a usage (help) output
                list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
                detects  an  error in the options supplied to it, after it has
                displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     is  available  on  systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel
                code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows  the  lsof
                user  to  specify  A  as an alternate name list file where the
                kernel addresses of the dynamic modules might be  found.   See
                the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
                information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they
                affect lsof.

       -b       causes  lsof  to  avoid  kernel  functions  that might block -
                lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS  sec-
                tions for information on using this option.

       -c c     selects  the listing of files for processes executing the com-
                mand that begins with the characters of c.  Multiple  commands
                may  be specified, using multiple -c options.  They are joined
                in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selec-
                tion.

                If  c begins with a `^', then the following characters specify
                a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If c begins and  ends  with  a  slash  ('/'),  the  characters
                between  the  slashes are interpreted as a regular expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to  prevent  their  interpretation  by the shell.  The closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command  specification  is tested first.  If that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple  command  test succeeds, the command regular expression
                test isn't made.  This may result in ``no  command  found  for
                regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     defines  the maximum number of initial characters of the name,
                supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX  command  associated
                with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The lsof
                default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply  all  command  name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains command name.  Often  dialects  limit  the  number  of
                characters  supplied  in  those  sources.   For example, Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit  command  name  length  to  16
                characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       disables  the  reporting  of any path name components from the
                kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME  CACHE  section  for
                more information.

       +d s     causes  lsof  to  search for all open instances of directory s
                and the files and directories it contains at  its  top  level.
                +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D
                option may be used to request a  full-descent  directory  tree
                search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing  of  the  +d  option does not follow symbolic links
                within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does  it  search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of s unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     specifies  a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or
                include in the output listing.  The file descriptors are spec-
                ified  in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g., ``cwd,1,3'',
                ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set  begin
                with  `^'.   It  is  an inclusion list if no entry begins with
                `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
                neither  member  is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
                ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,  ``0-7''
                or  ``3-10''.   Ranges  may be specified for exclusion if they
                have the  `^'  prefix  -  e.g.,  ``^0-7''  excludes  all  file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple  file  descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion  members  in  the  set,
                lsof  reports  them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
                code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
                the  OUTPUT  section  for  more information on file descriptor
                names.

       +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances  of  directory  D
                and  all the files and directories it contains to its complete
                depth.

                Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  symbolic  links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
                subdirectories  of  D  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
                specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option  limits  it  to
                searching  for  files  that the user has permission to examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and  require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at  D,  calling
                stat(2)  for  each  file and directory, building a list of all
                the files it finds, and searching that list for a  match  with
                every  open  file.  When directory D is large, these steps can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of  this
                option  is  sometimes  restricted.   See the DEVICE CACHE FILE
                section and the sections that follow it for  more  information
                on this option.

                -D  must be followed by a function letter; the function letter
                may optionally be followed by a path  name.   Lsof  recognizes
                these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The  b,  r,  and  u functions, accompanied by a path name, are
                sometimes restricted.  When these  functions  are  restricted,
                they  will not appear in the description of the -D option that
                accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE
                FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
                tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only  and  write  paths  that
                lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
                ronment variables whose values lsof will examine when  forming
                the  device  cache  file path, and the format for the personal
                device cache file path.  (Escape the  `?'  character  as  your
                shell requires.)

                When  available,  the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
                the  device  cache  file's  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname  in the home directory of the real user ID that
                executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof  was
                configured  and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and -?
                options show the current default prefix  -  e.g.,  ``.lsof''.)
                The  suffix,  hostname,  is  the first component of the host's
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof  to  build  a  new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The  r  function  directs lsof to read the device cache at the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device  cache  file  when  none  exists or the existing one is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a  path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or out-
                dated device cache file, or creating a new one in  its  place.
                The  r function is always available when it is specified with-
                out a path name argument; it may be restricted by the  permis-
                sions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache file at the default or specified path, if possible,  and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is s from  being  sub-
                jected  to  kernel  function  calls  that might block.  The +e
                option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most  readlink(2)  kernel
                function  calls.   The  -e  option  exempts  only  stat(2) and
                lstat(2) kernel function calls.  Multiple file systems may  be
                specified  with separate +|-e specifications and each may have
                readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to  other  than
                the  file system of interest, because it uses path name rather
                than the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device  and
                inode  numbers  are  acquired  via  the  potentially  blocking
                stat(2) kernel call and are thus not available,  but  see  the
                +|-m  m  option as a possible alternative way to supply device
                numbers.)  Use this option with great care and  fully  specify
                the path name of the file system to be exempted.

                When  open files on exempted file systems are reported, it may
                not be possible to obtain all their  information.   Therefore,
                some   information  columns  will  be  blank,  the  characters
                ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column, and the appli-
                cable  exemption  option is added in parentheses to the end of
                the NAME column.  (Some device  number  information  might  be
                made available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-E     +E  specifies  that  Linux  pipe  and  Linux UNIX socket files
                should be displayed with endpoint information and the files of
                the  endpoints  should  also  be displayed.  Note: UNIX socket
                file endpoint information is available only when  the  compile
                flags line of -v output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

                Pipe  endpoint  information is displayed in the NAME column in
                the form ``PID,cmd,FDmode'', where PID is the endpoint process
                ID;  cmd  is  the endpoint process command; FD is the endpoint
                file's descriptor; and mode  is  the  endpoint  file's  access
                mode.

                UNIX socket file endpoint information is displayed in the NAME
                column in the form
                ``type=TYPE ->INO=INODE PID,cmd,FDmode'', where  TYPE  is  the
                socket  type;  INODE  is  the  i-node  number of the connected
                socket; and PID, cmd, FD, and mode are the same as  with  pipe
                endpoint  information.  Note: UNIX socket file endpoint infor-
                mation is available only when the compile  flags  line  of  -v
                output contains HASUXSOCKEPT.

                Multiple  occurrences  of  this  information  can  appear in a
                file's NAME column.

                -E specfies that Linux pipe and Linux UNIX socket files should
                be  displayed  with endpoint information, but not the files of
                the endpoints.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
                preted.   When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination
                it specifies that the listing of kernel file structure  infor-
                mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally  a  path  name  argument is taken to be a file system
                name if it matches a mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by
                mount(8),  or  if  it  represents a block device, named in the
                mount output and associated with  a  mounted  directory  name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be file system names, and lsof will complain if any  are  not.
                This  can  be  useful,  for example, when the file system name
                (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.   This  happens  for
                some CD-ROM file systems.

                When  -f  is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
                be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example,  the  ``-f --
                /''  arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/'
                path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated  and
                aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
                tem name) that might be taken as a  parameter.   For  example,
                use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally  inhib-
                ited,  and is not available in whole or part for some dialects
                - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the pre-
                fix  to  f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters request file
                structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File   structure   addresses,  use  counts,  flags,  and  node
                addresses may be used to detect more readily  identical  files
                inherited  by  child  processes  and identical files in use by
                different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
                put  columns holding the values and listed to identify identi-
                cal file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK  or
                Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     specifies  a  character list, f, that selects the fields to be
                output for processing by another program,  and  the  character
                that terminates each output field.  Each field to be output is
                specified with a single character in f.  The field  terminator
                defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUT-
                PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the  field
                identification characters and the field output process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
                fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field,  security
                context  and  zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL
                field terminator is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
                (`0'),  all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
                nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in  f,  as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
                not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica-
                tion of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
                listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list  contains  the  single
                character  `?',  lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
                identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as  your
                shell requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes  or  selects  the  listing of files for the processes
                whose optional process group IDentification (PGID) numbers are
                in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation)  represent  exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple  PGID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.  However,  PGID  exclu-
                sions  are  applied  without  ORing  or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   selects  the  listing  of  files any of whose Internet address
                matches the address specified in i.  If no address  is  speci-
                fied, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25
                (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with  no  following  address,  only
                files  of  the  indicated  IP  version, IPv4 or IPv6, are dis-
                played.  (An IPv6  specification  may  be  used  only  if  the
                dialects   supports   IPv6,   as  indicated  by  ``[46]''  and
                ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -?  output.)  Sequentially  speci-
                fying  -i4,  followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and
                vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same  as
                specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a limit of 100) may be specified
                with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or  service  name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in  square
                brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6  options  may  be  used only if the UNIX dialect supports
                IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec-
                ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
                of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and  ``IPv[46]'',  IPv6  is
                supported.

                IPv4  host names and addresses may not be specified if network
                file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host  names
                and  addresses  may not be specified if network file selection
                is limited to IPv4 with -i  4.   When  an  open  IPv4  network
                file's  address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's
                type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
                by '6', not '4'.

                At  least  one  address  component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname,
                hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The  `@'  character,
                leading  the host specification, is always required; as is the
                `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
                or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number
                list.  If a service name list is specified, the  protocol  may
                also  need  to  be  specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
                numbers for the service name are different.  Use  any  case  -
                lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric  range
                entries  are separated by minus signs.  There may be no embed-
                ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
                protocol.   Since  service  names  may  contain embedded minus
                signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service  name;
                it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -K       selects  the  listing  of  tasks  (threads)  of  processes, on
                dialects where task (thread) reporting is supported.  (If help
                output  -  i.e.,  the  output of the -h or -?  options - shows
                this option, then task (thread) reporting is supported by  the
                dialect.)

                When -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of a
                main process are selected by other options, the  main  process
                will  also  be  listed as though it were a task, but without a
                task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the OUTPUT
                section.)

                Where  the  FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will
                be listed with their IDs.

                In general threads and tasks inherit the files of the  caller,
                but may close some and open others, so lsof always reports all
                the open files of threads and tasks.

       -k k     specifies a kernel name list file, k,  in  place  of  /vmunix,
                /mach,  etc.   -k  is  not  available  under  AIX  on  the IBM
                RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It
                is also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or
                slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables (`+') or disables  (`-')  the  listing  of  file  link
                counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't available
                for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When +L is specified without  a  following  number,  all  link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number,  only  files  having  a  link
                count  less  than  that number will be listed.  (No number may
                follow -L.)  A specification of the form ``+L1''  will  select
                open  files  that  have been unlinked.  A specification of the
                form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on
                the specified file system.

                For  other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a
                post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   specifies an alternate kernel memory file or  activates  mount
                table supplement processing.

                The  option  form  -m  m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount  supplement  file  be
                written  to  the  standard output file.  All other options are
                silently ignored.

                There will be a line in the mount  supplement  file  for  each
                mounted file system, containing the mounted file system direc-
                tory, followed by a single space, followed by the device  num-
                ber in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof  can  use the mount supplement file to get device numbers
                for file systems  when  it  can't  get  them  via  stat(2)  or
                lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note:  the  +m and +m m options are not available for all sup-
                ported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options
                to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis-
                trations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports, where port map-
                ping  is  supported.   (See  the last paragraph of this option
                description for information about where  portmapper  registra-
                tion reporting is supported.)

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the
                HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header file;
                lsof  is  distributed  with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deacti-
                vated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must
                be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will
                report the default mode.   Disabling  portmapper  registration
                when  it  is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it when already
                enabled is acceptable.  When portmapper registration reporting
                is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration (if any)
                for local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immedi-
                ately  following  the  port  numbers  or service names - e.g.,
                ``:1234[name]'' or ``:name[100083]''.  The registration infor-
                mation  may  be a name or number, depending on what the regis-
                tering program supplied to the portmapper when  it  registered
                the port.

                When  portmapper  registration  reporting is enabled, lsof may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the  portmapper  becomes  congested  or  stopped.  Reverse the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
                ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
                ers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is  found  in  the
                local  part  of  its  containing kernel structure; or if it is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
                and  the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or
                if it is located in the foreign part of its containing  kernel
                structure  and the foreign Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK
                (127.0.0.1).  This rule may  make  lsof  ignore  some  foreign
                ports  on  machines  with multiple interfaces when the foreign
                Internet address is on a different interface  from  the  local
                one.

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                further  discussion  of  portmapper   registration   reporting
                issues.

                Portmapper   registration   reporting  is  supported  only  on
                dialects that have RPC header files.   (Some  Linux  distribu-
                tions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When portmapper reg-
                istration reporting is supported, the -h or  -?   help  output
                will show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits  the  conversion of network numbers to host names for
                network  files.   Inhibiting  conversion  may  make  lsof  run
                faster.   It is also useful when host name lookup is not work-
                ing properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs lsof to display file offset at all times.   It  causes
                the  SIZE/OFF  output  column  title  to be changed to OFFSET.
                Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or con-
                sistent  file offset information from its kernel data sources,
                sometimes just for particular kinds  of  files  (e.g.,  socket
                files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its loca-
                tion.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't  both
                be  specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays what-
                ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
                the type of the file.

       -o o     defines  the  number of decimal digits (o) to be printed after
                the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form  is  switched  to
                ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use
                the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof  to  display  offset  at  all
                times;  specify -o (without a trailing number) to do that.  -o
                o only specifies the number of digits after ``0t''  in  either
                mixed  size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for exam-
                ple, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a dec-
                imal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The  default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description  of  the -o o option in the output of the -h or -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       directs lsof to bypass the strategy it  uses  to  avoid  being
                blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in forked
                child processes.  See the BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS  and  AVOIDING
                KERNEL  BLOCKS  sections for more information on kernel opera-
                tions that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     excludes or selects the listing of  files  for  the  processes
                whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are in the
                comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There
                should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID  numbers  that  begin with `^' (negation) represent exclu-
                sions.

                Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a  single  ORed  set
                before  participating  in  AND option selection.  However, PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for net-
                work files.  Inhibiting the conversion may  make  lsof  run  a
                little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is not
                working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts lsof in repeat mode.  There  lsof  lists  open  files  as
                selected by other options, delays t seconds (default fifteen),
                then repeats the listing, delaying  and  listing  repetitively
                until  stopped  by  a  condition  defined by the prefix to the
                option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must  be
                terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If  the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no
                open files are listed - and of course  when  lsof  is  stopped
                with  an  interrupt  or  quit  signal.   When repeat mode ends
                because no files are listed, the process  exit  code  will  be
                zero  if  any  open  files were ever listed; one, if none were
                ever listed.

                Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if  field  output  is  in
                progress  (the  -F,  option  has  been specified), the default
                marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker  is  ``========''.
                The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The  optional  "m<fmt>"  argument  specifies  a format for the
                marker line.  The <fmt> characters following  `m'  are  inter-
                preted  as a format specification to the strftime(3) function,
                when both it and the localtime(3) function  are  available  in
                the  dialect's  C library.  Consult the strftime(3) documenta-
                tion for what may appear in its  format  specification.   Note
                that  when field output is requested with the -F option, <fmt>
                cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.   Note  also  that  when
                <fmt>  contains  spaces  or  other  characters that affect the
                shell's interpretation of  arguments,  <fmt>  must  be  quoted
                appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
                cient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively  from  a
                shell script, for example.

                To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
                ification of other lsof selection options, so  the  amount  of
                kernel  memory  access  lsof  does  will be kept to a minimum.
                Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c,  -g,  -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat  mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the
                -F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl  script,
                or a C program.

       -R       directs  lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number
                in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at  all  times.   It
                causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.
                If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                The optional -s  p:s  form  is  available  only  for  selected
                dialects, and only when the -h or -?  help output lists it.

                When  the optional form is available, the s may be followed by
                a protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon  (`:')  and  a
                comma-separated  protocol  state  name list, the option causes
                open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their  state  name(s)
                are  in  the  list (s) preceded by a `^'; or included if their
                name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

                When an inclusion list is defined,  only  network  files  with
                state  names  in  the list will be present in the lsof output.
                Thus, specifying one state name means that only network  files
                with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case  is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there
                may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating  the  protocol
                name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If  only  TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by
                the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
                specified,  too.   If only a single protocol's files are to be
                listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN,
                use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or,  for  example,  to  list network files with all UDP states
                except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not  possible  to
                provide  a  complete  list.   Some common TCP state names are:
                CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,
                ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,   CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common  UDP  state  names  are
                Unbound and Idle.

                See  the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
                more information on how to use protocol  state  exclusion  and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option
                (without a following protocol and state name list)  are  mutu-
                ally exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset -  is
                appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since  some  types  of  files don't have true sizes - sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   specifies  an optional time-out seconds value for kernel func-
                tions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might other-
                wise  deadlock.   The  minimum for t is two; the default, fif-
                teen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls the  reporting  of  some  TCP/TPI  information,  also
                reported  by  netstat(1), following the network addresses.  In
                normal output the information  appears  in  parentheses,  each
                item  except  TCP  or  TPI state name identified by a keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
                ues (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

                When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
                character.

                -T  with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI informa-
                tion reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not  all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State
                may be selected for all dialects and is reported  by  default.
                The  -h  or  -?   help output for the -T option will show what
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
                by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
                is disabled by default, and it  must  be  explicitly  selected
                again  in  the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the
                default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue  lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
                and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the  UNIX
                dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
                SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header  files  -
                most     often     <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>    and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
                ing of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO=''  precedes  socket  options and values; ``SS='', socket
                states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an  '='
                and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',  ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN          partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details on what socket options and values, socket states,  and
                TCP  flags  and  values  may  be displayed for particular UNIX
                dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't  lsof
                report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
                for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof  report  the  partial
                listen  queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions in
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       specifies that lsof should produce terse output  with  process
                identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that the output may
                be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or
                user  ID  numbers  are  in  the  comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces  in  the
                set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes  a
                negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
                user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
                selection  is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections; it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
                the  listing  of  the  files  of the process.  For example, to
                direct lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to  root
                processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       selects  the  listing  of lsof version information, including:
                revision number; when the lsof  binary  was  constructed;  who
                constructed  the  binary  and  where; the name of the compiler
                used to construct the lsof binary; the version number  of  the
                compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags
                used to construct the lsof  binary;  and  system  information,
                typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       directs  lsof  to  indicate the items it was asked to list and
                failed to find - command names, file names, Internet addresses
                or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
                pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
                not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
                option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
                file containing the located search item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
                a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and  may  not
                list  any,  if  none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
                similar situation arises when HASSECURITY  and  HASNOSOCKSECU-
                RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
                of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression  of  warning  mes-
                sages.

                The  lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
                or enabled by default.  The default warning message  state  is
                indicated  in  the  output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
                warning messages when they are already  disabled  or  enabling
                them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their processing
                to cross over symbolic links and|or file system  mount  points
                encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or directory tree
                (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without  a  following  parameter,
                cross-over  processing  of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
                out a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The  optional  'f'  parameter  enables file system mount point
                cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over  process-
                ing.

                The  -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d
                or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
                executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
                its use on a  busy  AIX  system  might  cause  an  application
                process  to  hang  so completely that it can neither be killed
                nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
                its  happening,  but  I think there is a remote possibility it
                could happen.

                By default use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX  5L  and  above
                lsof  may  need  setuid-root permission to perform the actions
                this option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be  restricted
                to  processes  whose real UID is root.  If that has been done,
                the -X option will not appear in the -h  or  -?   help  output
                unless  the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
                lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by  default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When  AIX  readx()  use  is  disabled, lsof may not be able to
                report information for all text and  loader  file  references,
                but  it  may  also  avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The readx() function, used by lsof or  any  other  program  to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's  dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another  applica-
                tion  process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search
                the  directory  -  e.g.,  by  using  open(2)   -   can   cause
                dir_search()  to  loop  forever,  thus hanging the application
                process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section  gives  its  location.)
                and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
                plete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its  APAR,  and
                methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This  Linux  option  requests  that lsof skip the reporting of
                information on all open TCP, UDP and  UDPLITE  IPv4  and  IPv6
                files.

                This  Linux  option  is  most  useful  when  the system has an
                extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the
                processing  of  whose  information  in  the /proc/net/tcp* and
                /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long  time,  and  whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the
                information you want lsof to  display  isn't  associated  with
                open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This  Solaris  10  and  above option requests the reporting of
                cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e.,  removed
                with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The  cached  path  is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to
                indicate that the path by which the file was opened  has  been
                deleted.

                Because  intervening  changes made to the path - i.e., renames
                with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached path,
                what  lsof  reports  is  only  the  path by which the file was
                opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to  be
                handled.

                Without  a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option speci-
                fies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output  col-
                umn.

                The  -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes
                lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
                tiple  -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to form
                a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in any of
                the  zones  will be listed, subject to other conditions speci-
                fied by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  It
                and  'Z'  field  output  character  support are inhibited when
                SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.   See  OUTPUT
                FOR  OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field out-
                put character.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option  speci-
                fies  that  security  contexts  are  to be listed in the SECU-
                RITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard  security  context
                name,  Z.   That  causes lsof to list only open files for pro-
                cesses in that security context.  Multiple  -Z  Z  option  and
                argument  pairs  may  be  specified to form a list of security
                contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security
                contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
                by other options and arguments.  Note that Z can be  A:B:C  or
                *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

       --       The  double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
                of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example,  when  the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
                when the absence of a value for the last keyed option must  be
                signified  by  the  presence  of a minus sign in the following
                option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These are path names of  specific  files  to  list.   Symbolic
                links  are  resolved  before use.  The first name may be sepa-
                rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or  the
                device  of  the file system, lsof will list all the files open
                on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the  name
                must  match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
                match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
                directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If  name  is  a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
                directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
                lar  file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro-
                cesses that have it open as a file or  as  a  process-specific
                directory,  such as the root or current working directory.  To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                use the +d s and +D D options.

                If  a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
                e.g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will  list  all  the  associated
                multiplexed  files  on  the  device  that  are  open  -  e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain  socket  name,  lsof  will  usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
                it is specified and is recorded in the  kernel  socket  struc-
                ture.   (See  the next paragraph for an exception to that rule
                for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g.,  ./file  -  in
                place  of  the  file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't
                work because lsof must match the characters you  specify  with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is able to search for it  by  its  device  and  inode  number,
                allowing  name  to be a relative path.  The case requires that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used  by  the  process  that  created the socket, and hence be
                stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
                be  able  to  obtain  the  device and node numbers of both the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2)  system  calls.   When  those conditions are met, lsof
                will be able to search for the UNIX domain  socket  when  some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path is /dev/log, and an lsof search  is  initiated  when  the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If  a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files
                whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies alternate device numbers.  See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL
                BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
                tion.

                Multiple file names are joined in a  single  ORed  set  before
                participating in AND option selection.

AFS
       Lsof  supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
       versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not  been  tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties  recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects when AFS kernel support is  implemented  via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses  do not appear in the kernel's variable name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof  can't  com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache  operations,  lsof  can't  identify  path name components for AFS
       files.

SECURITY
       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default  compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable  device
       cache  file  in  the  home  directory of the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled  by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open  files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real  user  ID  number  of  the  lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However,  if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
       may list open socket files, provided they  are  selected  with  the  -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof  distribution
       for  information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is  controlled  by  the  compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE
       CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details  on  how
       its  path  is  formed.   For security considerations it is important to
       note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user  ID  under
       which  lsof  is executed is root, the device cache file will be written
       in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.   When  HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.   When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output will
       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority  to  read  them
       with  access(2).   This  is  intended to prevent whatever special power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This  section  describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or
       hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in the dialect's
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language  locale.   The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language  locale in which the extended characters are considered print-
       able by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for  the names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers  wide  charac-
       ters  -  e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in
       the dialect's machine.h header  file,  and  when  a  suitable  language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that  aren't  printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according  to  its  rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult  the  answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
                  command  associated with the process.  If a non-zero w value
                  is specified to the +c w option,  the  column  contains  the
                  first  w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
                  ated with the process up to the limit of characters supplied
                  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c
                  w command or the lsof FAQ for  more  information.   The  FAQ
                  section gives its location.)

                  If  w  is  less  than the length of the column title, ``COM-
                  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the  col-
                  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
                  mand associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
                  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
                  name descriptor (`c') is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       TID        is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task (thread)
                  reporting is supported by the dialect and a task (thread) is
                  being listed.  (If help output - i.e., the output of the  -h
                  or  -?   options  -  shows  this  option, then task (thread)
                  reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                  A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process  -  i.e.,  a
                  non-task.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
                  selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the  SELinux  security  context.   This  column  must  be
                  selected  with  the  -Z  option.  Note that the -Z option is
                  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux ker-
                  nel.

       PPID       is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is the process group IDentification number  associated  with
                  the  process.   It  is only displayed when the -g option has
                  been specified.

       USER       is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom  the
                  process  belongs,  usually  the  same  as reported by ps(1).
                  However, on Linux USER is the user ID number or  login  that
                  owns  the  directory  in  /proc where lsof finds information
                  about the process.  Usually that is the same value  reported
                  by  ps(1),  but  may differ when the process has changed its
                  effective user ID.   (See  the  -l  option  description  for
                  information  on  when a user ID number or login name is dis-
                  played.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD is followed by one of these  characters,  describing  the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The  mode character is followed by one of these lock charac-
                  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of  the
                  file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the entire file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See  the  LOCKS  section  for  more  information on the lock
                  information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for  pars-
                  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is  the  type  of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network  file  -  even  if  its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or  ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
                  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file;

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or  ``POLP''  for  an  old format /proc light weight process
                  file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of  unknown
                  type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or  the  four  type  number octets if the corresponding name
                  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains  the  file  reference  count  from  the kernel file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,  this  field  contains
                  the  contents  of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
                  structure and the kernel's per-process open file  flags  (if
                  available);  `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
                  `g', as short-hand names; two lists may  be  displayed  with
                  entries  separated by commas, the lists separated by a semi-
                  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
                  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
                  header  files   <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,   <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;  see the lsof.h header
                  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta-
                  ble:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identi-
                  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or  inode
                  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers,  separated  by  commas,  for  a
                  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
                  file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory  file  system  node  under  Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
                  stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
                  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam-
                  ple.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux  AX.25  socket
                  device.

                  Usually  only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel
                  addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the  file  offset  in  bytes.   A
                  value  is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
                  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri-
                  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On  some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis-
                  tent file offset information from its kernel  data  sources,
                  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket
                  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
                  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
                  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
                  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)
                  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)
                  for more information.

                  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is nor-
                  mally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con-
                  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x''
                  if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult  the  -o  o  option
                  description  for information on when 8 might default to some
                  other value.)

                  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
                  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
                  ``0x'' as described above.

                  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
                  with the -o o option.   Consult  its  description  for  more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
                  column  SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;
                  they can't both be specified.

                  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't  reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about the current size or position of  the  file  if  it  is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e.g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is  the name of the mount point and file system on which the
                  file resides;

                  or the name of a file specified in the names  option  (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or  the  local  and  remote  Internet addresses of a network
                  file; the local host name or IP  number  is  followed  by  a
                  colon  (':'),  the  port,  ``->'',  and  the two-part remote
                  address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers  or  names,
                  depending  on  the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
                  IPv6  numbers  are  enclosed  in   square   brackets;   IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY  and  IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
                  zero port numbers are represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
                  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
                  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina-
                  tion;  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be followed
                  by  TCP/TPI  information  in  parentheses  -  state   (e.g.,
                  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window
                  sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what net-
                  stat(1)  reports;  see  the  -T  option  description  or the
                  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PRO-
                  GRAMS  for more information on state, queue size, and window
                  size;

                  or the address or name of a  UNIX  domain  socket,  possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system object's
                  path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,  socket  pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character device name, followed by ``->'' and
                  the stream name or a list of stream module names,  separated
                  by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as  many  components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by  the  vnode  device  information
                  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
                  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
                  socket address;

                  or  the  HP-UX  x.25  local address, followed by the virtual
                  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
                  (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
                  terminal files that have been  flagged  with  the  TIOCNOTTY
                  ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the
                  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones  of
                  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
                  the file;

                  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or  10  UNIX
                  domain  socket,  created by the socketpair(3N) network func-
                  tion;

                  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have  a  protocol
                  block  associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
                  or  ``,  CANTRCVMORE''  if  receiving on the socket has been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
                  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
                  state;

                  or  ``dgram''  or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
                  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,  followed  by  a  colon
                  (':')  and  the  local path name when available, followed by
                  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
                  hexadecimal when available;

                  or the association value, association index, endpoint value,
                  local address, local port, remote address  and  remote  port
                  for Linux SCTP sockets;

                  or  ``protocol:  ''  followed by the Linux socket's protocol
                  attribute.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing  one  file
       to   be   attached   to   another   with  fattach(3C),  lsof  will  add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''   to    the    NAME    column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to  this  vnode  whose
       address  is  <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof  may  add  two  parenthetical  notes  to  the NAME column for open
       Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of  question-
       able  accuracy;  and  ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been specified
       and lsof detects the open file's path name has been  deleted.   Consult
       the  lsof  FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more informa-
       tion on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide  variety  of  UNIX  dialect  file
       locks  in a single character.  What it reports in a single character is
       a compromise between the information it finds in  the  kernel  and  the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If  it  is  a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       - i.e., `r', `w', or `x'  -  rather  than  the  upper  case  equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof  can  only  report  on locks held by local processes on
       local files.  When a local process sets a lock on  a  remotely  mounted
       (e.g.,  NFS)  file,  the  remote  server  host usually records the lock
       state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and  in
       all  versions  above  2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel records information on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.   Consult  the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is  suitable
       for  processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field
       follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification  character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and  file  sets.   A
       process  set  begins  with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process
       IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next  PID  field
       or  the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever comes
       first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify  the  com-
       mand, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the task (thread)
       ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A file set begins with a  field  whose  identifier  is  `f'  (for  file
       descriptor).   It  is followed by lines that describe the file's access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream  module  names.  It extends to the beginning of the next file or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field  identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other  fields
       may  be declared optionally in the field identifier character list that
       follows the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies  an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR''  -  also  selects  the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult  to  identify  file sets.  To help you avoid this difficulty,
       lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all  fields  with
       NL  terminators  (the  -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields
       with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither  -F  nor  -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These  are  the  fields  that  lsof will produce.  The single character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor (always selected)
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information  on  these  characters  and  their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?' char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process  or  file  set,  only
       those  that  are  available.   Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode  num-
       ber  and  protocol name; file name and stream identification; file size
       and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually  exclusive  sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero)
       field identifier character may be specified to change the field  termi-
       nator  character  to  a  NUL  (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to
       process with xargs (1), for example, or  with  programs  whose  quoting
       mechanisms  may  not  easily  cope  with the range of characters in the
       field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends  each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included in the lsof distribution.  The  first  is  a  C  header  file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters, indexes for storing them in a table,  and  explanation  strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second  aid  is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They're  located  in  the  scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
       suite is written in C and uses field output  to  validate  the  correct
       operation  of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
       of the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof  can  be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in  the  kernel,
       for  example,  when  the  hosts  where  mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers  and  child  processes,
       but  the  techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with  an  error  message.   The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds,  but  you should avoid small values, since slow system respon-
       siveness can cause short timeouts to expire  unexpectedly  and  perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information, it normally  continues,  although  with  less  information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof  can  also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes when using the kernel functions that might block by  specify-
       ing  the  -O  option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with less
       overhead, it exposes lsof completely  to  the  kernel  situations  that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You  can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option  usually  requires  that  your  system  supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See
       the  ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate
       device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're  file
       system  names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
       numbers of files listed with names in the  lsof  options,  and  the  -b
       option  prevents  lsof  from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity  to  locate  files on file systems depends completely on the avail-
       ability and accuracy of the alternates.  If no  alternates  are  avail-
       able,  or  if  they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate files on
       the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that  lsof  obtains
       from  your  system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b  option  causes  lsof  to
       avoid  the  kernel  readlink(2)  function  it  uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it  needs  to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to
       avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying  the  -w  option,
       but  if  you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers reported in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it  can't  get
       information  about  a  mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified  the  -b  option,  lsof  can
       obtain  some of the information it needs - the device number and possi-
       bly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When  that  is
       possible,  lsof  will  report  the device number it obtained.  (You can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is  supported  with  an
       /etc/mtab  or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
       a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not  have  one  in  their
       options  strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some
       mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts  are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You  may  also  be  able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of  lsof's  -h  or  -?   options  to see if the +m and +m m options are
       available.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the  file
       system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)   Here's  an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab for a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file,  especially  for  file  systems  that are mounted from remote NFS
       servers.  When a remote server crashes and you  want  to  identify  its
       users  by  running  lsof  on one of its clients, lsof probably won't be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.   If  it  can  obtain  the file system's device number from the
       mount table, it will be able to display the files open on  the  crashed
       NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that  do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       for the mount table may still provide an alternative device  number  in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alterna-
       tive  device  number for these dialects and uses it when its attempt to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device  numbers  for
       file  systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning  messages  that  begin  ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof  is  able  to  examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel
       facilities (e.g., the ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path()  function  under  Tru64
       UNIX)  on  some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and
       extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS  file  system
       path  lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file
       system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.   If  lsof
       can't  report  all  components in a path, it reports in the NAME column
       the file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters,  another
       space,  and  the  name  components it has located, separated by the `/'
       character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified  -
       the  extent  to  which  it can report path name components for the same
       file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other  running  pro-
       cesses  can  cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files  can
       lead  it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.  This
       can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as  a
       key  (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file system
       is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the  name  cache
       entry  for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the
       wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives  its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with  stat(2)
       functions  can  be  time  consuming.  What's more, the information that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or  /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where
       it's not needed.)  The local system administrator who builds  lsof  can
       control  the  way  the device cache file path is formed, selecting from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state  of  device  cache  support.   The  help output lists the default
       read-mode device cache file path that is  in  effect  for  the  current
       invocation  of  lsof.   The  -D?  option output lists the read-only and
       write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable  environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof  can  detect  that the current device cache file has been acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation  and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
       sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with  the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can  legiti-
       mately write.

       The  path  from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache
       file may not be the same as the  path  to  which  it  can  legitimately
       write.   Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device cache
       file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the path  from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device
       cache file.  (It's always available when specified without a path  name
       argument.)

       When  a  new  device  is added to the system, the device cache file may
       need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares  the  mtime  of  the  device
       cache  file  with  the mtime and ctime of the /dev (or /devices) direc-
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof  issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache
       file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to  the
       real  UID  of  the executing process, and its permission modes to 0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect  its  ability  to  access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin-
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It  comes  into  effect
       when  lsof  is executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real
       (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The  lsof  distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The  second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect
       when the effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of  the  lsof
       process  is  set  to  one that can access kernel memory devices - e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the  per-
       mission  after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does
       that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache  path  formations.   The
       lsof  distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The -D option provides limited means for specifying  the  device  cache
       file  path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can  use  them  to
       request  that the cache file be built in a specific location (b[path]);
       read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The  b,
       r,  and  u  functions  are  restricted under some conditions.  They are
       restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.   The  path  specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The  b,  r,  and  u functions are also restricted when the lsof process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF  PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT  DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When  available,  the  b function tells lsof to read device information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When  available,  the  r  function  tells lsof to read the device cache
       file, but not update it.  When a  path  argument  accompanies  -Dr,  it
       names  the  device cache file path.  The r function is always available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning  setuid-root  and  surrenders  its  setgid permission, a path name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to  read  and  use
       the  device  cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the
       contents of the file incorrect or outdated, it  will  read  information
       from  the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the device
       cache file, but only to a path it considers  legitimate  for  the  lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's  second  choice for the device cache file is the contents of the
       LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids this choice if  the  lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A  further  restriction  applies to a device cache file path taken from
       the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable: lsof will  not  write  a  device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT  DEVICE  CACHE  FILE
       ACCESS  section for information on implementations that don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the  LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment  variable  or  change its name when building lsof.  Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide  device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by a special system administration procedure when the system is  booted
       or  when  the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined, it is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide  device  cache  file  path  by
       default.   It  must  be  explicitly  named  with  a  -D  function  in a
       root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been  written,  the  procedure
       must  change  its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read and owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The default device cache file path of  the  lsof  distribution  is  one
       recorded  in  the  home  directory  of the real UID that executes lsof.
       Added to the home directory is a second  path  component  of  the  form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was  built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find the
       system-wide device cache file.  This is the only  time  lsof  uses  two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The  hostname part of the second component is the base name of the exe-
       cuting host, as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name  is  defined
       to  be  the  characters  preceding the first `.'  in the gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The device cache file belongs to  the  user  ID  and  is  readable  and
       writable  by  the  user ID alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each dis-
       tinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof  has  a  distinct
       device  cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes device
       cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into  which  device  cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The  personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a
       device cache file that lsof will attempt to read, and will  attempt  to
       write  should  it not exist or should its contents be incorrect or out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal device cache file.  The conversions used in the format  speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If  this  option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof
       is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be  used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  variable  contents are inserted in the path at the
       place marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p''  conver-
       sion  in  the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's machine.h
       header file.  (It's placed  right  after  the  home  directory  in  the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc-
       tory is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'',  and
       the  HASPERSDC  format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified
       personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  is  ignored  when  the  lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof  will  not  write to a modified personal device cache file path if
       the lsof process doesn't surrender setgid permission.   (See  the  LSOF
       PERMISSIONS  THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal  device
       cache  file  paths  by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
       name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its  setgid  permission,  you  will
       have  to  allow  lsof to create device cache files at the standard per-
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option  when  lsof  is
       built;  change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the  personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option  for  the  environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option is specified, lsof will indicate the search items it  failed  to
       list.

       It  returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may  also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning messages usually disappear after lsof has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more  fully,  see  the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To  list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open  IPv6  net-
       work files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of  mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To  list  all  open  files  for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file,  with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file system named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain  PID  and  command  name field output for each process, file
       descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file  of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes  running  a  command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric  dot-form
       address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an  IP  version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6)  by  an  associated  numeric colon-form address that has a run of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that  contains  the  current  time,
       use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character  (fol-
       lowing  the  file  descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise  it  is
       limited  to  searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1)  does.   For example, the major and minor device numbers that the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files  are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones that
       it reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The  support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and Tru64
       UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 -  e.g.,  Free-
       BSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size -
       are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc  file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No  text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All
       entries for files other than the current working  directory,  the  root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof  can't  search  for  Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof  can't  report  fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00
       locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or  errors  in  the
       kernel  data.   See  the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       for details.

       The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for  file  struc-
       tures  whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header file.  One way to create  such  file  structures  is  to  run  X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The  +|-f[cfgGn]  option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for  the
                         names of other variables that can be used in place of
                         LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device  cache  file.   See  the
                         DEVICE  CACHE  PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE sec-
                         tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a  modified  personal
                         device  cache  file  path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available  in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's device cache file (The  suffix,  hostname,  is
                         the  first  component  of the host's name returned by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof was written by Victor A.Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of  Purdue  Univer-
       sity.   Many  others  have  contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host  lsof.itap.purdue.edu.   You'll  find the lsof distribution in the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access  lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also  contains
       a  more  complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with caution -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof  executables  are  available  on  lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build your
       own from the sources.  If you feel you must  use  a  pre-compiled  exe-
       cutable,  please  read  the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof  distribution  can  be  found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX  dialect  to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2),  awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C), ff(1), fstat(8), fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),  isprint(3),  kill(1),  localtime(3),  lstat(2),   mod-
       load(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2),
       setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

                                 Revision-4.89                         LSOF(8)

Man(1) output converted with man2html
list of all man pages